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Terms in this set (49)
The amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1 degree celsius
a positively charged ion (H+) formed of a hydrogen atom that has lost its electron
the number of moles of solute per liter of solution
Hydroxide bonded to carbon skeleton; OH
chemical group consisting of a sulfur atom bonded to a hydrogen atom
chemical reaction that breaks bonds by the addition of water
An extensively branched glucose storage polysaccharide found in the liver and muscle of animals.
A molecule that is a constituent of the inner bilayer of biological membranes, having a polar, hydrophilic head and a nonpolar, hydrophobic tail.
covalent bond formed between amino acids
The third level of protein structure; the overall, three-dimensional shape of a polypeptide due to interactions of the R groups of the amino acids making up the chain.
a nitrogenous base that has a single-ring structure; one of the two general categories of nitrogenous bases found in DNA and RNA; thymine, cytosine, or uracil
A five-carbon sugar that is a component of DNA nucleotides
Basic unit of matter
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
The ability to do work or cause change
A chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule
the weak attraction between a hydrogen atom and another atom
A starting material in a chemical reaction
A measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid
A homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
measurement system used to indicate the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in solution; ranges from 0 to 14
A functional group present in organic acids and consisting of a single carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom and also bonded to a hydroxyl group.
A chemical group consisting of a phosphorus atom bonded to four oxygen atoms; important in energy transfer.
A double sugar, consisting of two monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis.
A chemical that provides both toughness and flexibility (fungus)
A type of lipid characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four rings with various functional groups attached.
The first level of protein structure; the specific sequence of amino acids making up a polypeptide chain.
The fourth level of protein structure; the shape resulting from the association of two or more polypeptide subunits.
Adenine and Guanine
two strands of nucleotides wound about each other; structure of DNA
required by an organism in only minute quantities
the sum of the number of neutrons and protons in an atomic nucleus
the possible energies that electrons in an atom can have
Groups of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds
Formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another
The elements or compounds produced by a chemical reaction.
the energy an object has due to its motion
A substance that is dissolved in a solution.
compound that prevents sharp, sudden changes in pH
An organic molecule with a carbonyl group located at the end of the carbon skeleton.
large compound formed from combinations of many monomers
chains of carbon atoms bonded to hydrogen atoms
A type of fat made by the body from saturated fat; a minor part of fat in foods.
The second level of protein structure; the regular local patterns of coils or folds of a polypeptide chain.
A process in which a protein unravels, losing its specific structure and hence function; can be caused by changes in pH or salt concentration or by high temperature. Also refers to the separation of the two strands of the DNA double helix, caused by similar factors.
A single-stranded nucleic acid that passes along genetic messages
Strong covalent bonds formed when the sulfur of one cysteine monomer bonds to the sulfur of another cysteine monomer
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