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Bones and bone tissue
Terms in this set (37)
Functions of the skeletal system
Protection, mineral storage, blood cell formation, fat storage, movement, support.
longer than they are wide
About as long as it is wide
bones of the vertebrae and face: bone's shape does not fit into other classes.
Round, flat bone found within tendon.
Flat bones are
Bone is broad, flat, and thin.
A dense fibrous membrane covering the surface of bones (except at their extremities) and serving as an attachment for tendons and muscles.
secure periosteum to underlying bone
shaft of a long bone
ends of long bone
hyaline cartilage that covers ends of bones in synovial joints
cavity within the shaft of the long bones filled with bone marrow
Hard, dense bone tissue that is beneath the outer membrane of a bone
Layer of bone tissue having many small spaces and found just inside the layer of compact bone. Aka cancellous bone.
supporting bundles of bony fibers in cancellous (spongy) bone
process of bone formation
First bone to be produced by ossification method
What replaces primary bone and is much stronger.
Occurs from within a membrane composed of embryonic mesenchyme. Spongy bone is formed first at the primary ossification center, then differentiates into periosteum and then the compact bone is formed.
takes place within a hyaline cartilage model. Process of Ossification of cartilage.
Proliferation of cells in the epiphyseal plate promotes this type of bone growth.
growth in width: osteoblasts in the periosteum secrete new circumferential lamellae.
ongoing replacement of old bone tissue by new bone tissue
membranous lining of the hollow cavity of the bone
layer of spongy bone, that is sandwiched between two the layers of compact bone found in flat bones
small opening in the middle of the external surface of the diaphysis, through which an artery enters the bone to provide nourishment
red bone marrow
Network of reticular fibers supporting islands of blood forming, or hematopoietic cells.
Yellow bone marrow
stores triglycerides, consists mostly of blood vessels and adipocytes
65% of the total weight of bone. Made of calcium salts (hydroxyapatite), phosphorus. Gives bone it's strength and ability to resist compression.
35% of ECM. Aka osteoid. Made up of
collagen fibers, proteoglycans, GAGs (glycosaminoglycans), glycoproteins and bone specific protein such as osteocalcin. Gives bone resistance to compression and strength.
bone forming cells. Stimulated by certain chemical signals to secrete organic matrix and aid in formation of inorganic matrix.
mature bone cells. When osteoblasts become surrounded and eventually trapped by secreted bone matrix in small cavity (lacuna). They secrete chemicals for maintaining the ECM.
Jellyfish like. Responsible for bone resorption during which they break down the bone ECM. They accomplish resorption by secreting hydrogen ions and enzymes from the ruffled border. The H ions create an acidic environmental which dissolved the inorganic matrix and the enzymes break down the organic matrix.
Different shapes of bone
Long bones, short bones, irregular bones, flat bones, sesamoid bones.
Recommended textbook explanations
Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology
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Hole's Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology
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