Bones and bone tissue

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Functions of the skeletal system
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Terms in this set (37)
Epiphysesends of long boneArticulate cartilagehyaline cartilage that covers ends of bones in synovial jointsmedullary cavitycavity within the shaft of the long bones filled with bone marrowcompact boneHard, dense bone tissue that is beneath the outer membrane of a bonespongy boneLayer of bone tissue having many small spaces and found just inside the layer of compact bone. Aka cancellous bone.trabeculaesupporting bundles of bony fibers in cancellous (spongy) boneOssification (osteogenesis)process of bone formationPrimary boneFirst bone to be produced by ossification methodSecondary boneWhat replaces primary bone and is much stronger.intramenbranous ossificationOccurs from within a membrane composed of embryonic mesenchyme. Spongy bone is formed first at the primary ossification center, then differentiates into periosteum and then the compact bone is formed.endochondral ossificationtakes place within a hyaline cartilage model. Process of Ossification of cartilage.Longitudinal growthProliferation of cells in the epiphyseal plate promotes this type of bone growth.appositional growthgrowth in width: osteoblasts in the periosteum secrete new circumferential lamellae.bone remodelingongoing replacement of old bone tissue by new bone tissueEndosteummembranous lining of the hollow cavity of the boneepiphyseal plategrowth plateDiploëlayer of spongy bone, that is sandwiched between two the layers of compact bone found in flat bonesnutrient foramensmall opening in the middle of the external surface of the diaphysis, through which an artery enters the bone to provide nourishmentred bone marrowNetwork of reticular fibers supporting islands of blood forming, or hematopoietic cells.Yellow bone marrowstores triglycerides, consists mostly of blood vessels and adipocytesBone tissueosseous tissueInorganic matrix65% of the total weight of bone. Made of calcium salts (hydroxyapatite), phosphorus. Gives bone it's strength and ability to resist matrix35% of ECM. Aka osteoid. Made up of collagen fibers, proteoglycans, GAGs (glycosaminoglycans), glycoproteins and bone specific protein such as osteocalcin. Gives bone resistance to compression and strength.Osteoblastsbone forming cells. Stimulated by certain chemical signals to secrete organic matrix and aid in formation of inorganic matrix.Osteocytesmature bone cells. When osteoblasts become surrounded and eventually trapped by secreted bone matrix in small cavity (lacuna). They secrete chemicals for maintaining the ECM.OsteoclastsJellyfish like. Responsible for bone resorption during which they break down the bone ECM. They accomplish resorption by secreting hydrogen ions and enzymes from the ruffled border. The H ions create an acidic environmental which dissolved the inorganic matrix and the enzymes break down the organic matrix.Different shapes of boneLong bones, short bones, irregular bones, flat bones, sesamoid bones.