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for all people studying for the science final!!!

job of petal

colorful structures

job of speal

protect developing flowers

job of stamen

male reproductive part

job of pistil

female reproductive part

vascular tissue

an internal system of tube like structures through which water and good move inside the plant

What contributions did Carolus Linnaeus make to the field of taxonomy?

He came up with the naming and subgrouping system

Major characteristics used to classify organisms into kingdoms

If the organism is...unicellular or multicelluar...autotroph or heterotrpoh...prokaryote or eukaryote

How do bacteria survive without a nucleus?

because the genetic material in their cells isnt contained in the nucleus

How do bacteria become resistent to antibiotics?

because the white blood cells multiply overtime

Functions of the circulatory system

Transports oxegen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, wastes, hormones, and enzymes...regulates body temperature...clots blood to prevent fluid loss...and fights illness'

The pulmonary artery is different than all the others because...

it's the only one that carries deoxegenated blood

the pulmonary vein is different than all the other veins because...

it's the only one that carries oxegenated blood

Job of the Leaf

to capture the suns energy and carry out the food-making process of photosynthesis

3 main characteristics of plants

eukaryotes...multicellular...and autotrophs


the science of sorting living things into groups based on similarities and differences


the preserved remains or traces of an organism that lives in the past

What can be learned from fossils?

about organisms that're extinct and about how and when a new organism evolved

Compare punctuated equilibria and gradualism

Gradualism states that evolution occurs slowly but steadily and that tiny changes gradually add up to major changes over a long period of time white punctuated equilibria states that species evolve during short periods of rapid change. There are also times of no change. Also, species evolve quicker when isolated (ex. continental drift.)

Petrified fossils-how they're formed

remains are buried in sediment and eventually turned to rock


a hollow space in sediment in the shape of an organism

Casts-how they're formed

when a mold is filled in with hardened minerals

Preserved Remains-how they're formed

when an organism is preserved in a substance such as ice, tar, or sap

What role did Darwin play on the Beagle?

He was the naturalist, and he had to learn as much as he could about the living things he saw on the voyage.

3 examples of nonvascular plants

Peat moss, liverworts, and hornworts

What contributions did Aristotle make to the field of taxonomy?

He classified organisms into 3 dwellers, sea dwellers, and air dwellers


the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one celcius degree

Natural Selection

The process by which individuals that are better adapted to their environment are more likely to survive and reproduce then other members of the same species

4 factors that may contribute to Natural Selection

Overproduction...competition...variation...and selection

Functions of the salivary glands

mixes pieces of food and moisturizes them...breaks down starch...makes saliva

Function of the esophagus

Connects the mouth and the stomach

Function of the stomach

ex[ands to hold all food holds about 2 liters of food


a J shaped muscular pouch located in the abdomen

Function of the large intestine

Absorbs water from food and the remaining material is removed from the body

Function of the liver

breaks down fats

Function of the pancreas

continues the breakdown of starch and proteins

Function of the gall bladder

stores bile after it's produced by the liver


a flap of tissue that seals off your windpipe, preventing the food from entering

The structure of the virus

Has two parts...outer protein coat that protects the ring and an inner core made out of genetic material


the early growth stage of the embryo

3 ways that seeds are dispersed

through...animals digestive systems, hooking on animal fur, the ocean or winds

Seeds need _____ to develop into plants

_____=light, water, and nutrients

Skins job in the excretory system

Part of the sweating process because when we sweat we excrete salt and water

Livers job in the excretory system

filters toxins from the blood and excretes them

How materials are transported in a nonvascular plant

they're passed from one cell to the next

Why are organisms classified into groups?

Because once an organism is classified, a scientist knows a lot about that organism and this makes it easier to study them

sex-linked traits

Traits that are found on the X chromosome


producing organisms that have exactly the same genes as the organism from which it was produced

Human Genome Project

A map of every single gene on every single chromosome

Three types of blood cells

Red blood cells...white blood cells...and platelets

Genetic Disorder

an abnormal condition that a person inherits through genes or chromosomes

Harmful bacteria

cause infectious diseases, produces toxin, and spoils food

Helpful bacteria

clean the environment, make food and antibiotics, aids in food digestion, aids in fuel production, decompose, and help make natural gas

Male sex chromosome


Female sex chromosome


What contributions did the microscope make to the field of taxonomy?

allowed scientists to discover microscopic life and to observe whether cells have chlorophyll or nuclei

Selective Breeding

a method used to develop organisms with desirable traits


when breeders cross two genetically different individuals


A picture of all the chromosomes in a cell

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