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The Age of Exploration
Terms in this set (20)
Why did people go to the New World?
To seek their fortunes, convert others to their religion, worship freely, and find adventure
What contributed to European expansion?
Technological innovation, because it made venturing out to sea more practical
Who was Prince Henry the Navigator?
A naval navigator who wanted to find the fabled Kingdom of Prester John by sailing around Africa- he was also a teacher of young mariners and did lots of research on navigation
Who was Prester John?
A legendary Christian king that many people admired, believed to rule somewhere in Africa
Who was Bartholomew Diaz?
A Portuguese explorer who was caught in a storm and accidentally rounded the Cape of Good Hope, which opened the way for later voyages to India
Who was Vasco de Gama?
The first European to reach India by sea
What was so important about trade with India?
Its pepper and cinnamon were very valuable in Europe
Who was Alfonso de Albuquerque?
The architecht of the vast Portuguese trading empire
Why were the Portuguese successful in their quest for commercial domination?
Superior naval power; Portugal was able to take advantage of the silver, sugar, and their Indian and Asian trading partners wanted other goods that poured in from South America and that. Also, the people of India were having political problems and were not united, making it relatively simple for the Portuguese and other Europeans to overwhelm them while ousting the Muslims.
Who was Christopher Columbus?
A Genoese mariner who, with the help of Spain, "discovered" the New World
What is the Treaty of Torsedillas?
A treaty between Spain and Portugal that moved the line that divided the "India" that both Spain and Portugal had discovered farther west; later this was how Portugal claimed Brazil
Who was Ferdinand Magellan?
A Spaniard explorer who found the shortest route to the true India
What were conquistadors?
Spanish adventurers and soldiers who were on a quest for wealth; conquered civilizations in Central and South America
Who was Hernando Cortez?
The first to conquer a native civilization (the Aztecs) in the mainland, he defeated the capital city Tenochtitlan on the Yucutan peninsula and eventually conquered the rest of Yucatan and northern Mexico
Who was Francisco Pizarro?
Defeated the Inca empire in Peru
What changes in society did Spanish colonization cause?
The Indians were placed under new forms of government, required to speak a new language, and were converted to a new religion. Their culture was practically destroyed, and they were exploited by a new labor system.
What was the Great Plague?
Millions of Indian natives died from European diseases that they were not immune to, especially smallpox
Describe black slavery.
Beginning in the sixteenth century, native Africans were captured and shipped by the thousands in order to replace the native populations who were dying off in the mines and on the campaneros.
Describe how the economy of the empire changed when Spanish colonization occurred.
The Spanish economy depended on natives or slaves to find gold and silver, the mainstay of its economy
Describe the Pacific trade of Spain.
Seaborn trade in the Pacific centered around manila, which served as a link between Spanish America and the Oriental Trade
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