CJ Exam #1
Terms in this set (33)
1. The authors suggest that the distortion of America's criminal justice system is a result of _______.
highly publicized cases
that are outside the norm =
increased fear of crime
2. At the very basic level, the criminal justice system derives its authority from the _______.
3. The primary distinction between prisons and jails is that _______.
Jail ->short term
Prison -> long-term
4. The Presidents' Commission Model of criminal justice in America, according to the authors, is _______.
process through stages, fragmented, emphasizes
and cost effectiveness
[ignores the social context of the system]
5. The hallmark of Samuel Walker's "Wedding Cake" model of criminal justice is the general assumption that _______.
the criminal justice system handles different kinds of cases differently
-1st layer: celebrated cases
-2nd/3rd layers: heavy duty/lightweight felonies
-4th layer: lower court cases, misdemeanors
6. Which one of the following models of criminal justice in America explores the role of social class in the criminal justice system?
The Criminalization Model
7. Which one of the following models of criminal justice in America suggests that reentry (former prisoners sent back to prison) is frequently because of diminished opportunities resulting from social stigmatization and alienation?
The Criminalization Model
8. Three significant factors encourage and reinforce an ideology that supports contemporary crime policies. Which of the following is NOT one of those factors?
law enforcement, courts, and corrections
9. Which of the following is/are among the participants of the crime control industry?
- Businesses that profit directly/indirectly
Private security firms
- Weapons, classes, degree programs
- Providers to prisons and jails
- Employees: corrections officials, lawyers, court employees, police officers, support staff
10. The legal concept describing the geographical area where the court has the power and authority to hear and determine judicial proceedings is called a _______.
11. Which one of the following statements validates the argument that the actual amount of crime in the United States is probably unknowable?
crimes known to police are from citizen reporting > if no one reports it, then police don't know about it
12. Which one of the following is NOT one of the primary criticisms of self-report surveys?
1. There are
inherent in all surveys (some respondents lie, other exaggerate, and some forget)
2. Many self-report surveys
do not utilize representative samples
(they instead target convenient groups such as high school students or prisoners)
3. Self-report surveys
ignore elite deviance
. Self-report studies focus almost exclusively on street crime and delinquent behavior, rather than corporate corruption of high-status people.
13. Which one of the following is NOT one of the major strengths of self-report surveys?
1. They provide information on
(the proportion of offenders who committed a particular offense at least once in a specific time period.
2. They provide
, or the average number of offenses per respondent
3. Self-report surveys allow researchers to
in the criminal justice system and differences in offending based on race and social class.
4. Self-report surveys can be
as broad or as narrowly defined
as the researcher desires
14. One of the basic assumptions of the sociological imagination is _______.
-The capacity too step back from the disputation. And to think from an alternative point of view
-the vivid awareness of the relationship between personal experience and the wider society
-need to situate experiences in social and historical context
-private problems must be understood in the context of public issues
-social structure of society impacts everyday life and often constrains our behavior
15. Social structure includes all of the following EXCEPT _______.
16. The current ______ help determine the nature of the law and therefore the definitions of crime.
and the nature of this order
17. The ________ (including lawmaking bodies and agencies that enforce the law, such as police, courts, and penal systems) and other social institutions (e.g., education, politics) support and perpetuate the existing social circumstances.
18. ______ result from an unequal distribution of resources (e.g., wealth, education), which in turn creates an unequal distribution of power (and with it the ability to control others).
Inequalities (in a capitalist system such as U.S. society)
19. Based on the content of your assigned reading, which one of the following statements about defining criminal behavior is NOT correct?
State definitions of certain behaviors as criminal is an exercise in power
- Ability to define certain behaviors as criminal and resist such definitions
varies with power of individuals and groups
- Behaviors of those with the
least likely to be defined as criminal
20. Which of the following statements reinforces the statement "the law, because it is a social product, must be viewed sociologically"?
The law if first and foremost a social institution complete with a system of roles and status positions (lawyers, judges, legislations, police officers).
It contains an ideology, a set of values supportive of the legal system and the existing social order.
The law, moreover, is a social process and many different people interpret and apply the law in various social contexts.
How the law is interpreted and applied depends on many various extralegal factors, such as class and race.
21. Which one of the following models holds that laws reflect the will of the people?
The Consensus/Pluralist model
22. _____ begins with the fact that modern industrialized societies are highly stratified and unequal in the distribution of power and in life chances. Law is a result of the operation of particular factions.
23. ______ challenges us to view the law and the legal order in a specific social and historical context.
The Critical Model
24. There are three main points in the consensus/pluralist model. Which one of the following is NOT one of those points?
- Law helps to
maintain social order
- Law reflects a
on what is or is not proper behavior
- Law and the Criminal Justice System protect
, not private interests (the law is neutral)
- Not ?
25. Formal social control consists, ideally, of all of the following EXCEPT _______.
2) planned used of
to interpret and enforce the rules
- Not ?
________ focus their attention on the
crimes of the poor
. In doing so, Americans are presented with an inaccurate "reality" of crime and this deflects attention from social inequalities and macro explanations for street-level criminality.
Lawmakers (law enforcement)
street crime as a public problem that threatens the moral order
, which deepens the fear of crime.
The criminalization process (courts)
create and maintain dangerous classes
Crime policies (corrections)
Description of the data:
The comparison provides a statistical portrait of the discrepancy between crimes known to the police and crimes identified by victims.
UCR is the comparison known to the police and NCVS is the number of victimizations per type of crime
1. Crimes known to police
2. Persons arrested
-Collect data of race, age, and location (rural, urban, suburban)
-No data on Hispanics, grouped with whites so distorts disparity between whites and blacks
-yearly, random sample, ≥ 12 years old asked about victimization, reporting, perpetrators, their reactions
-Focus on rape, robbery, assault, larceny, burglary, motor vehicle theft
-Twice as many crimes occurred as were reported to police
(1) the majority of arrests are for relatively minor offenses
(2) most arrests involve either property crimes or public-order and victimless crime
(3) at least half may be drug or alcohol related
Problems with UCR
1) Not accurate (underestimated true amount of crime/manipulated easily)
2)jurisdictional reporting (not every police agencies have the same definitions/exaggerate)
3)One source data (FBI/Law enforcement agencies)