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Agile Methodology

Aims for customer satisfaction through early and continuous delivery of useful software components developed by an iterative process using the bare minimum requirements

Alpha testing

Assess if the entire system meets the design requirements of the users

Analysis phase

the firm analyzes its end-user business requirements and refines project goals into defined functions and operations of the intended system.


a technique for generating ideas by encouraging participants to offer as many ideas as possible in a short period of time without any analysis until all the ideas have been exhausted


defects in the code of an information system

Business requirement

specific business requests the system must meet to be successful

Change agent

a person or event that is the catalyst for implementing major changes for a system to meet business changes

Communication plan

defines the how, what, when, and who regarding the flow of project information to stakeholders and is key for managing expectations

Computer-aided software engineering (CASE)

Software tools that provide automated support for the development of the system

Control objects for information and related technology (COBIT)

A set of best practices that helps an organization to maximize the benefits of an information system, while at the same time establishing appropriate controls to ensure minimum errors


process of transferring information from a legacy system to a new system

Corrective maintenance

makes system changes to an information system to repair flaws in the design, coding, or implementation

Critical path

Estimates the shortest path through the project ensuring all critical tasks are completed from start to finish.


a logical relationship that exists between the project tasks, or between a project task and a milestone

Design phase

establishes descriptions of the desired features and operations of the system including screen layouts, business rules, process diagrams, pseudo code, and other documentation

Development phase

takes all the detailed design documents from the design phase and transforms them into the actual system

Development testing

Programmers test the system to ensure it is bug free

Discovery prototyping

builds a small scale representation or working model of the system to ensure it meets the user and business requirements

Executive sponsor

the person or group who provides the financial resources for the project

Extreme programming (XP) methodology

breaks a project into four phases, and developers cannot continue to the next phase until the previous phase is complete


measure of the tangible and intangible benefits of an information system

Fourth-generation languages (4GL)

programming languages that look similar to human languages

Gantt chart

a simple bar chart that lists project tasks vertically against the project's time frame, listed horizontally

Help desk

a group of people who respond to user questions

implementation phase

The organization places the system into production so users can begin to perform actual business operations with it.

In-sourcing (in-house development)

uses the professional expertise within an organization to develop and maintain its information technology systems.

Intangible benefits

difficult to quantify or measure

Integration testing

verifies that separate systems can work together passing data back and forth correctly

Iterative development

consists of a series of tiny projects

Kill switch

a trigger that enables a project manager to close the project before completion

Legacy system

an old system that is fast approaching or beyond the end of its useful life within an organization

Maintenance phase

involves performing changes, corrections, additions, and upgrades to ensure the system continues to meet the business goals


A set of policies, procedures, standards, processes, practices, tools, techniques, and tasks that people apply to technical and management challenges.

Nearshore outsourcing

contracting an outsourcing arrangement with a company in a nearby country

Object-oriented languages

languages group data and corresponding processes into objects

offshore outsourcing

using organizations from developing countries to write code and develop systems

off-the-shelf application software

supports general business processes and does not require any specific software customization to meet the organization's needs

Online training

run over Internet or from a CD or DVD, and employees complete the training on their own time and own pace

Onshore outsourcing

engaging another company within the same country for services


An arrangement by which one organization provides a service or services for another organization that chooses not to perform them in-house.

Parallel implementation

using both the legacy system and new system until all users verify that the new system performs correctly

PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique) chart

graphical network model that depicts a project's tasks and the relationships between them

Phased implementation

installs the new system in phases until it is verified that it works correctly

Pilot implementation

a small group uses the new system until it is verified that it works correctly, then the remaining users migrate to the new system

Planning phase

Establishes a high-level plan of intended project and determines project goals

Plunge implementation

discards the old system completely and immediately uses the new system

preventive maintenance

Making changes to a system to reduce the chance of future system failure


Temporary activity a company undertakes to create a unique product, service, or result

project assumption

factors considered to be true, real, or certain without proof or demonstration

Project constraint

specific factors that can limit options; budget, delivery dates, available skilled resources, organizational policies

Project deliverable

Any measurable, tangible, verifiable outcome, result, or item that is produced to complete a project or part of a project

project management

The application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements

Project management office (PMO)

an internal department that oversees all organization projects

Project manager

An individual who is an expert in project planning and management, defines and develops the project plan, and tracks the plan to ensure the project is completed on time and on budget

Project milestone

represents key dates when a certain group of activities must be performed

Project objective

quantifiable criteria that must be met for the project to be considered a success

Project plan

a formal, approved document that manages and controls project execution

Project requirements document

defines the specifications for product/output of the project and is a key for managing expectations, controlling scope, and completing other planning efforts

Project scope

describes the business needs and the justification, requirements, and current boundaries for the project

Project scope statement

links the project to the organization's overall business goals

Project stakeholder

Individuals and organizations actively involved in the project or whose interests might be affected as a result of project execution or project completion


modern design approach where the designers and system users use an iterative approach to building the system

Rapid application development (RAD) methodology (also called rapid prototyping)

emphasizes extensive user involvement in the rapid and evolutionary construction of working prototypes of a system to accelerate the systems development process

Rational unified process (RUP) methodology

provides a framework for breaking down the development of software into four gates

Requirements management

process of managing changes to the business requirements throughout the project

Requirements definition document

prioritizes the business requirements by order of importance to the company

Responsibility matrix

defines all project roles and indicates what responsibilities are associated with each role

Scripting language

programming method that provides for interactive modules to a website

Scrum methodology

uses small teams to produce small pieces of deliverable software using sprints, or 30 day intervals, to achieve an appointed goal


users' actual signatures, indicating they approve all of the business requirements

Software customization

modifies software to meet specific user or business requirements

Software engineering

disciplined approach for constructing information systems through the use of common methods, techniques, tools

Status report

periodic reviews of actual performance versus expected performance

Systems development life cycle (SDLC)

the overall process for developing information systems from planning and analysis through implementation and maintenance

System testing

Verifies that the units or pieces of code function correctly when integrated

Tangible benefits

easy to quantify and typically measured to determine the success or failure of a project

test conditions

the detailed steps the system must perform along with the expected results of each step

Testing phase

brings all the project pieces together into a special testing environment to eliminate errors and bugs, and verify that the system meets all the business requirements defined in the analysis phase

unit testing

Tests individual units or pieces of code for a system

user acceptance testing (UAT)

determines if the system satisfies the user and business requirements

User documentation

highlights how to use the system and how to troubleshoot issues or problems

Waterfall methodology

a sequence of phases in which the output of each phase becomes the input for the next

Workshop training

held in a classroom environment and is led by an instructor

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