Terms in this set (12)

1. Cigarette smoking (direct + passive)
A. Nicotine - epinephrine released, increase HR and vasoconstriction
B. increase platelet adhesiveness (stickiness) - increase clot formation
C. CO (carbon monoxide) - attaches to Hgb molecule; less O2 carried to tissues
2. Hypertension - increase P.V.R. (peripheral vascular resistance); increase workload of heart accelerates process of atherosclerosis.
3. Hyperlipidemia
A. advanced age
B. male gender (under 60) then male/female risk equal
C. genetic predisposition - especially family history before age 55.
D. hyperlipidemia (increase serum lipoproteins) caused by: increase dietary fat intake, diabetes, and genetics. Lipoproteins = lipids, phospholipids, cholesterol and triglycerides bound to carrier proteins.
4. Diabetes mellitus (type 1 - insulin dependent) occurrence of CAD X 2 greater in men; X 4 more in women, CAD occurs earlier and more severely with diabetes; increase blood glucose accelerates CAD.
5. Women and CAD - higher mortality rate after acute myocardial infarction; number 1 killer of american women (more deaths than all cancers combined); detection more difficult; less favorable outcomes after surgery and procedures than men.
6. Cocaine/Methamphetamine use: increase BP and HR; cause vasoconstriction of coronary arteries.
7. Hyperhomocysteinemia
A. homocysteine is amino acid (from animal protein); normally, broken down in the liver with help of vitamins B6, B12, and folic acid
B. causes injury to arterial wall
C. treat/prevent with folic acid (folate)
8. Role of inflammation in development of CAD - C-reactive protein (CRP) high sensitivity ("cardiac" CRP) increase and measures inflammation