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Biology Chapter 19.1, 19.2, 19.3 terms
Terms in this set (60)
a species that has died out
Sedimentary rock usually forms when...
small particles of sand, slit, clay or lime muds settle to the bottom of a river, lake, ocean or body of water
As sediments build up...
they bury dead organisms that have sunk to the bottom
As layers of sediment continue to build up over time...
the remains are buried deeper and deeper, and over many years, the water pressure gradually compresses the lower levels
researchers who study fossils to learn about ancient life
From the fossil record, paleontologists learn about...
the structure of ancient organisms, their environment, and the ways in which they lived
places rock layers and their fossils in a temporal sequence and allows paleontologists to determine whether a fossil is older or younger that other fossils
What are index fossils used for?
To help establish the relative ages of rock layers and their fossils
Distinctive fossils used to establish and compare relative ages of rock layers and fossils
method used to determine the age of rocks using the rate of decay of radioactive isotopes
length of time required for half of the radioactive atoms in a sample to decay
Elements with ___________ half lives are used to date older fossils
a long-lived naturally occurring radioactive carbon isotope of mass 14, used in carbon dating and as a tracer in biochemistry.
Elements with ___________ half lives are used to date recent fossils
An isotope is known as _______________ is particularly useful for directly dating organisms that lived in the recent past
Geologic time scale
geologists and paleontologists have built a time line of Earth's history, and is based on both relative and absolute dating
4 eons recognized by geologists
Hadean eon, Archean eon, Proterozoic eon, and Phanerozoic eon
the largest division of geologic time
what eons are divided into
what eras are subdivided into, which range in length from nearly 100 million years to 2 million years
A theory stating that the earth's surface is broken into plates that move.
How has the earths climate and ocean chemistry changed due to the actions of living organisms?
the earth has cooled down, carbon dioxide levels dropped, the iron contents of the ocean fell, and iron ions reacted with oxygen to form insoluble compounds
changes in anatomy, phylogeny, ecology, and behavior that take place in clades larger than a single species
a branching diagram that illustrates how closely related organisms are
what if the rate of speciation in a clade is equal to or greater than the rate of extinction?
The clade will continue to exist, but if the rate of extinction in a clader is greater than the rate of speciation, the clade will eventually become exinct
gradual process of a species becoming extinct
Method of determining the age of a fossil by comparing its placement with that of fossils in other layers of rock
Distinctive fossils used to establish and compare the relative ages of rock layers and the fossils they contain
A large extinction of species in a relatively short period of time
How fast does evolution take place?
evidence shows that evolution has often proceeded at different times over the long history of like on Earth
Half life in years
The theory that evolution occurs slowly but steadily
Pattern of evolution in which long stable periods are interrupted by brief periods of more rapid change
Plants use the sun's energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars
what are the two patterns of macro evolution?
adaptive radiation and convergent evolution
process by which a single species or a small group of species evolves into several different forms that live in different ways
Modern adaptive radiations
numerous species evolved from a single founding species
Process by which unrelated organisms independently evolve similarities when adapting to similar environments
Process by which two species evolve in response to changes in each other
The formation of Earth
First evidence of life
a symbiotic relationship evolved over time, between primitive eukaryotic cells and the prokaryotic cells within them, and prokaryotic cells entered those ancestral eukaryotes
prokaryotes reproduce ____________________
Eukaryotes reproduce ______________
RNA world hypothesis
hypothesis that RNA served as the genetic information of early life
What did Stanley Miller and Harold Urey do?
questioned could organic molecules assemble under conditions on early earth
Experiment that found that organic molecules can form in a strongly reducing atmosphere.
Using C-14 to analyze rock layers is a method of ______________________.
estimating absolute aging
Half-life is the length of time required for half the atoms in a radioactive sample to ___________
According to the theory of plate tectonics, ____________________________________
earth's continents move very slowly
The process that produces similar-looking structures in unrelated groups of organisms is ______________________
The general term for large-scale evolutionary changes that take place over long periods of time is called
Cladograms that are based on the fossil record always show
relationship based on shared derived characteristics
Earth's atmosphere contained little to no ___________
In their experiment that modeled conditions on ancient earth, Miller and Urey used electric sparks to simulate ______________
Outlines of ancient cells that are preserved well enough to identify them as prokaryotes are___________
The oldest of the Precambrian eons; the time between Earth's origin and the formation of the first rocks that have been preserved.
Eon extending from the time that life originated, 3.8 billion years ago, to 2.5 billion years ago. The oldest eon of Earth's living history.
The most recent of the Precambrian eons.
most recent eon, include the past 542 million years, divided into 3 eras
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