57 terms

Art History Florence 2018

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Pisa Cathedral
The cathedral itself is the earlier, duomo, dedicated to Santa Maria del assunta (all Tuscany cethdrals dedicated to this)
Architect unknown, year is 1062, style is Romanesque, material is marble
Pisa Baptistery
-baptistery dedicated to Saint John
Architect is unknown
Year is 1152
Style is Romanesque
Pisa Bell Tower
Architect unknown
Year 1173
Romanesque
The Camposanto in Pisa
means the holy field or cemetery
1273 architect is unknown
Gothic
Funerary space
The Bell tower or leaning tower of Pisa
-leaving tower is 56 meters tall
Building material is marble
Circular floor plan
8 horizontal level, engaged columns stuck to the wall
-spogiale translates to spoils or trophies or recycled materials
-blind arches if it is stuck to the wall
-6 super imposes covered spaces
-belfry is where the bells are kept
-bell tower sinks and then leans about 5 cm and they panic halfway and stop and project remains suspended for 100 years. The solution is to finish it to banana it so it means the opposite way. Completed it in the 1300s. It continues to lean and the lean increases 5mm per year
Floor plan cathedral of Pisa
-cathedral of Pisa
Francis is assisi loved the cross
Big chandelier as marker point
3 orders in the cathedral=arcade, second arcade, and Clere story level full of windows
All the capitols are classical and ancient Roman
-2nd level typical for Romanesque structures to have a women's gallery
-Latin cross plan
-the first rectangular section is inspired by a basilica
Basilica Plan
Basilica plan means a rectangular floor plan which is divided on its longer axis into any number of aisles
Romans created the basilica to overcome the height of trees, ceilings made of wood. Width of building dictated by heights of trees. So thenbigger the church the more trees. They overcame this buy only putting a huge tall central aisle ceiling with wood, the naive, and then having side aisles as shorter less extravagant with independent ceilings
Most Romanesque churches have a perfect basilica structure, then said anyone who can afford to be buried in a church can be, then they added the transcept which is the cross arm in a Latin cross plan. It evolved because they increased the amount of prime real estate
The Pisa Baptistery Pulpit
Pisa baptistery has a dunking pool. Romanesque Baptisteries are closer to design to early christian baptistery because they are so old
Nicola pisano was the artist date is 1260
Style is gothic location is Pisa Baptistery
Pisano is to sculpture and Giotto is to painting, except he was doing naturalism 50 years before Giotto
Renaissance began first in the medium of sculpture
-first panel=subject is the birth of Christ, nativity, annunciation with the angel that leads us to the nativity. Mary looks like an ancient Roman figure
-column between first and second panel especially the male figure identified as Hercules or Daniel. Artist Pisano date 1260. This is 40 years before the temperance figure in the cathedral.
-the second panel the three kinds visiting Jesus, he looks so obese and Pisano really wants him to look like a baby
-third and final panel subject is cruxifixrion , most time triple execution this time it is only a single crucidixrion. Looking at Jesus as a hero
The Medici Family
Medici adopt the renaissance style, the rise of the Medici coexists with the rise of the renaissance that begins in 1400
Medici begin a campaign of wide scale patronage
Giovani d vicci is the patriarch of the family the first important man born in 1300s. He married above his social rank. Invested into very risky textiles, in 1399 he opened his own bank in Florence, in 1410 it was the third most powerful bank in Europe
Probably originated from doctors or pharmacists
Medici has to be very discrete with their wealth
Giovanis first born son cosimo il vecchio de Medici
Cosimo remained discrete in his patronage
The Medici Palace
Architect is Michelozzo in 1448
Patron is cosimo il vecchio de Medici
Style is early renaissance
IT IS THE FIRST EVER RENAISSANCE STYLE FAMILY PALACE
Material is brown stone
-pietra forte=strong stone, the local brown sand stone in Florence typical for Florentine buildings.
-rustication=the rough surface treatment of the exterior of the building. The reason to do this is to make it look old or fortified.
3 orders or stories to the structure
Brunoleski palace proposal was too over the top. It was his way or the highway, while michealozzo was much more down to earth and would listen to his clients. All of his projects were completed in his lifetime
Chapel of the Magi
Benozzno gozzoli is the artist
Date is 1459
Patron is piero (the gouty) de Medici
Function of the chapel was just for mass
Medici Courtyard
Floor plan, 3 orders
Lowest order is articulated by an arcade or series of arches of new material pietra serena=serene stone, the local grey sandstone used for the interiors of Florentine buildings. Burnoleski was the first to introduce this material.
Shape of the arches are rounded semi circular
Corinthian order of columns with the leaves
Entablatuie=
Piano nobile=the noble level or floor of a domestic building, it is where the family actually lived
Top floor was for kitchen storage and servant quarters
Basilica San Lorenzo
1420 bruno brunaleski
Patron is comine (Medici)
Style is early renaissance
THE FIRST EVER RENAISSANCE STYLE CHURCH
called basilica because the church that stood before was the first ever Christian church
Basilica san lorenzo sacritisy
Sacrifisty=the space off of the alter where the priest prepare for mass
1421 patron is giovani
Function was burial
The first ever renaissance style interior space
Ground plan is square
Geometric shapes hat are related to each other proportionately make it renaissance
3 orders
Church follows a modular system of proportion
Competition panels in the bargello
Competition panels 1401
Right is Brunelleschi left is Lorenzo ghiberti
Style is international gothic style or late gothic style
The medium for both is the same and it is bronze
On the left, rock and cliff giving us a sense of depth
David
Artist is Donatello year is 1408/1415
Patron is opera/senioria
Medium is marble
First ever heroic image of David in sculpture
Make the sculpture white and magna
Michelangelo was the replacement
On the second date his is when Florence adopts David as it's mascot
Saint George
Year 1415
Patron is the sword and armpit guild
Donatello is architect
Original location is the church of orsanmichele
Contra pposto=counter position or counter placement, it is a stance insculpture where all the weight is on one leg while one is relaxed and the shoulders are going opposite ways. It suggests that the sculpture can move in a static immobile medium
He is wearing Roman leather armor
Putting a statute in a narrative
This is where michealangelo go his idea for his famous David
David dark bronze
Artist is Donatello
Subject is David
Date around 1430
Original location is the courtyard of the Medici palace
Probable Patron is Medici family
It is the first free standing nude statue since ancient Roman times
It is now equal to architecture
Very feminine
Rock in hand even though head is cut off on the ground
Bacchus
Michealangelo
1496(he was 21)
Patron was cardinal riario
His first professional contract
Cardinal wants to put it in his ancient statue garden
Rejected bc it was too naturalistic
Church of orsanmichelle
Architect is unknown
1337
Patron is the commune
Original function is the central grain market of florence
Black Death 1348
Guild=a group of men who share a similar profession who form a group to protect their own economic interests
The Uffizi
Architect georgio vasari
1560
Patron duke cosimo I de Medici
Original function was the capital admin building of the duke of Tuscany
Lorenzo using romans wife's political connections with the college of cardinals that elect popes
His son Giovani de Medici was a cardinal who was later elected pope leo X
Allesandre de Medici the nephew of pope clement was made duke of Florence in 1531
Getting rid of all signs of democracy so moved to another building from city hall. Uffizi was the office
Was not designed as a museum
#1 in Uffizi: The Madona and child (ognissanti madona)
Artist Giotto
1310
Original location is the church of the ognissanti translated to all saints
Giotto celebrated as the first to break the bizantine style
Virgin Mary where she looks like an alien=bizantine
Giotto is the first to put naturalism back in PAINTING not sculpture
Naturalism is nature as his model and inspiration
St Francis of Asisi revolutionized naturalisn
#2 in uffizi: the annunciation
Artist is Simone martini
1333
The patron was the opera of the duomo of sienna
Style of the painting is gothic
Story of the gospel of Luke where the angel comes and tell Mary she will become the mother of Jesus Christ
One of the 4 pareonale alter pieces in cathedral in sienna
Black and white flag is the national flag of sienna
2D halos been gothic
Com is strip says Hail Mary full of grace the lord is with you from the angel
Mary looks a little fearful from the angel
#3 ufizi battle of San Romano
Paolo uccello
1440
Style is early renaissance
The frame is not gothic, not lots of decoration or eccentric, not a lot of light, it is landscape which means renaissance, no halos which is a really big deal, it is secular subject matter, renaissance equals perspective
Two vanishing points because he is showing off
#4 Madonna and child and angels
Fra lipo lippi
1450
Renaissance, landscape, halo is in perspective, naturalistic
Coincidence of opposites
#5 duke and duchess or urbino
Eiero dela Francesca
1474
Patron is the duke
Renaissance
Genre Portraiture
Medieval society thought it to be areogant to make portraits
One of the first portraits since antiquity or in a millennium
Bust length portrait, position of power, you look like a Roman Empire in the profile position
#6 la primavera
Botticelli
1470s
Subject matter is new and mythological, pagan subject
Probable patron is Medici
Painting reads right to left
The angel zefer he is the god of the western women
Venus in the middle
#7 the birth of Venus
Botticelli
1480s
Pagan and mythological
Probably patron is medici
Venus body distorted because she is supernatural
#8 the annunciation
1472
Da Vinci
Early renaissance
He was 20
This is his masterpiece
Atmospheric perspective is the realistic treatment of backgrounds in painting.
Sfumato=smoky or hazy in painting
He reproduced how we see it rather than what we saw, he was studying optics
#9
1481
Da Vinci
Early renaissance
State is unfinished
#10 the holy family
Michealangelo
1505
Angelo doni is the patron
A tondo is the type of painting which means round so it is a circular lainting
Starts being michealangelo the brand
Forum
SOcial center of the city. It was built from scratch, usually rectangular. Intersection of Cardo and Cecamunas was the forum. Florence was a roman city with the grid system. Forum acted as it is until the fall of the roman empire in 500 AD. Collapsed because of famine and barbarians.
Rebirth of florence
Trade and commerce in 1000AD brought people back to the city center. Commercial revolution. Merchants made more than feudal lords but had no political power.
Palazzo della Signoria
Large, brown stone, Seat of the new republic.
Architect is unkown, date is 1299. Function was the city hall. Means the old palace.
Baptistery of Florence
Florence, Italy; 1059; Architect unknown, style romanesque. If you look at the gorund plan, it was inspired by the romans. It is octangular. Ancient roman columns. Reused ancient roman material for prestigue.
The Cathedral of Florence
Dedicated to BVM. Duomo architect is Arnolfo Di Cambio, date is 1296, patron is the commune, style is gothic.
The Bell Tower of florence Cathedral
Architect is giotto 1334, Patron is the opera, style is gothic
The mosaic ceiling of the baptistery
Artist unknown, subject is Jesus and the last judgement. Done in the 1220s. All of time was done on the ceiling which was very elaborate.
Antiquity timeline
800BC to 500AD which was the fall of the roman empire. CLASSICAL
Middle ages timeline
500AD to 1400AD
ROMANESQUE was 900AD to 1200AD
GOTHIC was 1200AD to 1400AD
Renaissance timeline
1400AD to 1700AD
EARLY REN is 1400AD to 1500AD
HIGH REN 1500AD to 1550AD this was the peak, and the last supper was the first work in 1495AD.
LATE REN is 1550AD to 1600AD
BAROQUE 1600AD to 1700AD
RECOCO 1700AD to 1750AD
Basilica De Groce
Largest Franciscan Church in the world. Architect is Unknown in 1294
It is the seat of the fransican order in florence. They take a vow of poverty
San Groce is the holy cross
Basilica
An honorary type of priviliedge that only the pope can give because of importance
Gothic
Pointed arches, very decorated and elaborate, height and light, thin walls, large windows, stained glass. Everything gothic is, romanesque is not. Goth was negative because it meant barbarian because italians did not like it because it was not classical or italian. To make the churches renaissance they removed the roode screen.
San Groce chapel paintings by Giotto I do not have the notes
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Convent of Sanmarco
Architect is Michelozzo/fra Angelico
Date is 1436 to 1442
Patron is the Medici, specifically cosimo the elder
Style is early renaissance
IT IS CONSIDERED TO BE THE FIRST EVER RENAISSANCE STYLE CONVENT
this convent is associated with the Dominicans because of black and white
This was 12 years before the Medici palace
All of the paintings in the convent are by fra Angelica with the same year
Beatified is one less step than a Saint, fra Angelica was beatified, he was also a friar of the Dominican order
Courtyard is called a cloister
Floor plan is a square with two levels
Michelozzo loves the ionic orders
Michelozzo isn't the fancy guy he gets the job done
Define LOUGE
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IN SITU
80 percent of the artwork in Florence is In Situ which means it is in its original situation or location. Important because art was not just for material worth or artwork. Example is franangelico hospital painting of Jesus being welcomed to show illiterate people it was a hospital.
Homo Pipatitis
man of pity or mercy, image of Jesus showing us his wounds to remind us of what he went through. Function of room was the menu
Chapter house
Was a room in a religious complex reserved exclusively for members of that religious chapter. The chapter room of convent of Sanmarco. They would talk about internal affairs and have collective confessions. The most typical subject for decoration is the crucifixion.
If you see an old guy holding a scroll
usually an Old Testament prophet
If a man had a book he is an
evangelist
The annunciation at the dorm level of sanmarco
The location is at the top of the stairs at the dorm level of San Marco
Medium is fresco
Artist is fra angelico
Year is 1436
Switch from ionic in back to Corinthian capitals in the front of the scene
Vanishing point is the window
Cell number 3 annunciation
All info is the same in this private cell annunciation. Saint Peter martyrs is there that is the only difference even though he wasn't there. The reason he is there is because he is comforting you
IMPORTANT The number and importance of intercessors as we go further
Cell number 6 which is the transfiguration
Same artist and year
More apostles which means more important, Saint Dominic and the BVM are introduced.shows how profound the subject of the painting is. More famous people the more important it is
Cell number 9 which is the coronation of the Virgin Mary
6 intercessors so this is a big deal
Jesus Christ is crowing her as the queen of heaven, this is an invented idea.
Aquinas, Benedict, Dominic, Francis, Peter Martyr, Mark
The library of sanmarco
Same info
1436
Second public library in public history.
Cosimos private book collection that he allowed people to use it was the most important collection of classical texts in the world
On the first floor not ground floor because he wanted to keep it safe
More light in first floor, and away from floods
Michelozzos most successful architecture
Rectangular 3 aisles
Basilica plan