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75 terms

INFO 210 Ch. 8

STUDY
PLAY
business intelligence (BI)
the use of information systems to gather and analyze information from internal and external sources in order to make better business decisions
continuous planning processes
organizations continuously monitor and analyze business processes; the results lead to ongoing adjustments to not only how the organization is managed, but these results are also reflected in ongoing updates to the organizational plans
operational level
the routine, day-to-day business processes and interactions with customers. IS at this level are designed to automate repetitive activities
structured decisions
those in which the processes to follow for a given situation can be specified in advance
managerial level
functional managers focus on monitoring and controlling operational-level activities and providing information to higher levels of the organization
semi-structured decisions
some procedures to follow for a given situation can be specified in advance but not to the extent where a specific recommendation can be made
key performance indicators (KPI's)
the metrics deemed most critical to assessing progress towards a certain goal
executive level
managers focus on long-term strategies facing the organization, such as which products to produce, which countries to compete in, and what organizational strategy to follow
unstructured decisions
few or no procedures to follow for a given situation can be specified in advance
transactions
repetitive activities that occur as a regular part of a business' day to day operations
transaction processing systems (TPS)
a special class of an information system designed to process business events and transactions
source documents
describe a specific business transaction and serve as a stimulus to a TPS from some external source
online processing
transactions that provide immediate results to the system operator or customer
batch processing
transactions that occur when source documents are collected and then processed together at some later time
manual data entry
information entered in by hand
semi-automated data entry
information is entered using some type of data capture device
fully automated data entry
information is entered without human intervention
ad hoc queries
queries created due to unplanned information needs that are typically not saved for later use
scheduled reports
reports produced at predefined intervals to support routine decisions
key indicator reports
reports that provide a summary of critical information on a recurring schedule
exception reports
reports that highlight situations that are out of the normal range
drill-down reports
reports providing greater detail as to why a key indicator is not at an appropriate level or an exception occurred
online analytical processing (OLAP)
refers to the process of quickly conducting complex, multidimensional analyses of data stored in a database that is optimized for retrieval, typically using graphical software tools
OLAP server
understands how data is organized in the database and has special functions for analyzing the data
measures
the values or numbers the user wants to analyze
dimensions
provide a way to summarize the data, such as a region, time, or product line
OLAP cube
a data structure allowing for multiple dimensions to be added to a traditional two-dimensional table
slicing and dicing
analyzing the data on subsets of the dimensions
data mining
complements OLAP in that it provides capabilities for discovering "hidden" predictive relationships in the data.
data reduction
reduces the complexity of the data to be analyzed
association discovery
a technique used to find associations or correlations among sets of items
sequence discovery
used to discover associations over time
clustering
the process of grouping related records together on the basis of having similar values for attributes
classification
used when the groups ("classes") are know beforehand and records are segmented into these classes
text mining
refers to analytical techniques for extracting information from textual documents
web mining
an approach to analyze the usage or content of web pages
web usage mining
used by organizations such as amazon.com to determine patterns in customers' usage data
clickstream data
a recording of the users' path through a web site
stickiness
the ability to attract and keep visitors
web content mining
refers to extracting textual information from web documents
management information systems (MIS)
refers to a specific type of information system that is used to produce reports to support the ongoing, recurring business processes associated with managing an entire business or a functional area within a business
executive information system (EIS)
consists of technology data, procedures, and the people needed to consolidate information from internal and external sources to assist executive-level decision making
soft data
includes textual news stories or other non-analytical information
hard data
includes facts and numbers
decision support system (DSS)
a special-purpose information system designed to support organizational decision making related to a particular recurring problem
what if analysis
allows you to make hypothetical changes to the data associated with a problem and observe how these changes influence the results
functional area information system
a cross-organizational-level information system designed to support the business processes of a specific functional area
groupware
refers to a class of software that enables people to work together more effectively
electronic meeting systems (EMS)
essentially a collection of personal computers networked together with sophisticated software tools to help group members solve problems and make decisions through interactive electronic idea generation, evaluation, and voting
desktop videoconferencing
add-ons (hardware boards, usually) to normal PCs, transforming them into videoconferencing devices
dedicated videoconferencing systems
all of the required components packaged into a single piece of equipment, usually a console with a high quality remote controlled video camera.
artificial intelligence (AI)
the science of enabling information technologies to simulate human intelligence
intelligent system
comprised of sensors, software, and computers embedded in machines and devices, that emulate and enhance human capabilities
expert system (ES)
a type of intelligent system that uses reasoning methods based on knowledge about a specific problem domain in order to provide advice
fuzzy logic
allows ES rules to be represented using approximations or subjective values in order to handle situations where information about a problem is incomplete
rule
a way of encoding knowledge, such as a recommendation, after collecting information from a user
inferencing
consists of matching facts and rules, determining the sequence of questions presented to the user, and drawing a conclusion
neural network
this IS attempts to approximate the functioning of the human brain
intelligent agent
a program that works in the background to provide some service when a specific event occurs
web spider
agents that continuously browse the web for specific information
knowledge management
refers to the processes an organization uses to gain the greatest value from its knowledge assets
knowledge assets
the underlying skills, routines, practices, principles, formulas, methods, heuristics, and intuitions, whether explicit or tacit, and all databases, manuals references works, textbooks, diagrams, displays, computer files, proposals, plans, and any other artifacts in which both facts and procedures are recorded and stored
explicit knowledge assets
reflect knowledge that can be documented, archived, and codified, often with the help of information systems
tacit knowledge assets
reflect the processes and procedures that are located in a person's mind on how to effectively perform a particular task
best practices
procedures and processes that are widely accepted as being among the most effective and/or efficient
knowledge management system
a collection of technology-based tools that enable the generation, storage, sharing, and management of tacit and explicit knowledge assets
social network analysis
a technique that attempts to find groups of people who work together, to find people who don't collaborate but should, or to find experts in particular subject areas
search appliance
a special type of computer that analyzes and indexes information within a web site
visualization
refers to the display of complex data relationships using a variety of graphical methods, enabling managers to quickly grasp the results of the analysis
visual analytics
the combination of various analysis techniques and interactive visualization to solve complex problems
digital dashboards
commonly used to present KPI's and other summary information used by managers and executives to make decisions
geographic information system (GIS)
a GIS is a system for creating, storing, analyzing, and managing geographically referenced information
customer dot mapping
used to map current customers, and decide whether one's business has the optimal location, or whether opening a new store would be warranted
trade area analysis
helps to asses where customers are coming from by combining location information with drive time information to determine is certain areas are under-served
thematic mapping
another widely using GIS technique, that color codes data that is aggregate for specific geographic regions