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100 terms

chapter 10

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analgesic
pertaining to relieving pain; a medication that relieves pain
anastomosis
a surgical joining of two ducts, blood vessels, or bowel segments to allow flow from one to the other
aneurysm
a localized dilatation in the wall of an artery that expands with each pulsation of the artery
aneurysmectomy
surgical removal of the sac of an aneurysm
angina pectoris
severe pain and constriction about the heart, usually radiating to the left shoulder and down the left arm; creating a feeling of pressure in the anterior chest
angiography
x-ray visualization of the internal anatomy of the heaert and blood vessels after introducing a radiopaque substance that promotes the imaging of internal structures that are otherwise difficult to see on x-ray film
arteriosclerosis (arteriosclerotic heart disease - ASHD)
an arterial condition in which ther is a thickening, hardening, and loss of elasticity of the walls of arteries, resulting in decreased blood supply, especially to the lower extremeities and cerebrum
ascites
an abnormal intraperitoneal accumulation of fluid containing large amounts of protein and electrolytes
atherectomy
a surgical procedure where a catheter is used to insert a small mechanically driven cutter that shaves the plaque from an arterial wall
atherosclerosis
a form of arteriosclerosis characterized by fatty deposits building up within the inner layers of the walls of larger arteries
atrial flutter
a condition in which the contractions of the atria become extremely rapid, at the rate of between 250 and 400 beats per minutes
bradycardia
a slow heart rate that is characterized by a pulse rate of under 60 beats per minute
bruit
an abnormal sound or murmur heard when listening to a carotid artery, organ, or gland with a stethoscope
CABG
Coronary artery bypass graft
cardiac catheterization
a diagnostic procedure in which a catheter is introduced into a large vein or artery, usually of an arm of a leg, and is then threaded through the circulatory system to the heart
cardiac enzymes
a battery of tests that are performed on samples of blood obtained by venipuncture to determine the presence of damage to the myocardial muscle
cardiomyopathy
a disease of the heart muscle itself, primarily affecting the pumping ability of the heart. This noninflammatory disease of the heart results in enlargement of the heart and dysfunction of the ventricles of the heart
carditis
inflammation of the heart
CAT scan
a diagnostic x-ray technique that uses ionizing radiation to produce a cross-sectional image of the body.
chest pain
a feeling of discomfort in the chest area
claudication
cramplike pains in the calves of the legs caused by poor circulation to the muscles of the legs
coarctation of the aorta
a congenital heart defect characterized by a localized narrowing of the aorta, which results in increased blood pressure in the upper extremities and decreased blood pressure in the lower extremities
congestive heart failure (CHF)
condition characterized by weakness, breathlessness, abdominal discomfort; edema in the lower portions of the body resulting from the flow of the blood through the vessels being slowed and the outflow of blood from the left side of the heart is reduced; pumping ability of the heart is progressively impaired to the point that it no longer meets bodily needs
coronary artery disease (CAD)
narrowing of the coronary arteries to the extent that adequate blood supply to the myocardium is prevented
CPR
cardiopulmonary resuscitation
cyanosis
slightly bluish, grayish, slate-like, or dark discoloration of the skin due to the presence of abnormal amounts of reduced hemoglobin in the blood
Deep vein Thrombosis (DVT)
a disorder involving a clot in one of the deep veins of the body, most frequently located in the iliacor femoral vein
Defibrillation
using an electrical countershock to stop fibrillation
dyspnea
air hunger resulting in labored or difficult breathing, sometimes accompanied by pain
dysrhythmia
abnormal rhythm
echocardiography (echo)
a diagnostic procedure for studying the structure and motion of the heart
edema
a local or generalized condition in which the body tissues contain an excessive amount of tissue fluid; swelling; generalized it is sometimes called dropsy
electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG)
a graphic record of the electrical action of the heart as reflected from various angles to the surface of the skin
endocarditis
inflammation of the membrane lining the valves and chambers of the heart caused by direct invasion of bacteria or other organisms and leading to deformity of the valve cusps. Abnormal growth called vegetations are formed on or within the membrane
essential hypertension
the most common form of hypertension that has no single know cause
exercise stress test
a means of assessing cardiac function, by subjecting the patient to carefully controlled amounts of physical stress
fibrillation - atrial and ventricular (v-fib)
extremely rapid, incomplete contractions of the atria resulting in disorganized and uncoordinated twitching of the atria
heart block
an interference with the normal conduction of electric impulses that control activity of the heart muscle
Holter monitor
a small, portable device that make prolonged electrocardiograph recordings on a portable tape recorder
hyperlipidemia
an excessive level or blood fats, usually caused by a lipoprotein lipase deficiency or a defect in the conversion of low-density lipoproteins to high-density lipoproteins
hypertension (HTN)
elevated blood pressure persistently higher than 135/85 mmHg
hypertensive heart disease
a result of long-term hypertension. The heart is affected because it must work against increased resistance due to increased pressure in the arteries
hypotension
low blood pressure; less than normal blood pressure reading
implantable cardioverter defibrillator
a small, lightweight, electronic device placed under the skin or muscle in either the chest or abdomen to monitor the heart's rhythm. If an abnormal rhythm occurs, it helps return the heart to its normal rhythm
infarction
a localized area of necrosis in tissue, a vessel, an organ, or a part resulting from lack of oxygen due to interrupted blood flow to the area
ischemia
decreased supply of oxtgenated blood to a body part or organ
malaise
a vague feeling of body weakness or discomfort, often indicating the onset of an illness or disease
malignant hypertension
a form of hypertension that is severe and rapidly progressive
mitral valve prolapse (MVP)
drooping of one or both cusps of the mitral valve back into the left atrium during ventricular systole, resulting in complete closure of the valve and mitral insufficiency
MRI
magnetic resonance imaging
murmur
a low-pitched humming or fluttering sound. In the heart it's heard on auscultation.
myocardial infarction (MI)
condition caused by occlusion of one or more of the coronary arteries
Myocarditis
inflammation of the myocardium
occlusion
closure, or state of being closed
orthopnea
an abnormal condition in which a person sits up straight or stands up to breath comfortably
pacemaker
an electrical apparatus used for maintaining a normal heart rhythm by electrically stimulating the heart muscle to contract
pallor
lack of color; paleness
palpitation
a pounding or racing of the heart, associated with normal emotional responses or with heart disorders
patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)
an abnormal opening between the pulmonary artery and the aorta caused by failure of the fetal ductus arteriosus to close after birth
pericarditis
inflammation of the pericardium
peripheral arterial occlusive disease
obstruction of the arteries in the extremities
PET scan
Positron Emission tomography - a computerized x-ray technique that uses radioactive substances to examine the blood flow and the metabolic activity of various body structures, such as the heart and blood vessels
petechiae
small, purplish, hemorrhagic spots on the skin
pitting edema
swelling, usually of the skin of the extremities, that when pressed firmly with a finger will maintain the dent produced by the finger
prophylactic
an agent or regimen that contributes to the prevention of infection and disease
PTCA
percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty
Raynaud's phenomenon
intermittent attacks of vasoconstriction of the arterioles, causing pallor of the fingers or toes, followed by cyanosis, then redness, before returning to normal color.
rheumatic fever (rheumatic heart disease)
an inflammatory disease that may develop as a delayed reaction to insufficiently treated Group A betahemolytic streptococcal infection of the upper respiratory tract
sclerotherapy
treatment for vericosed veins that involves the injection of a chemical irritant into the vein to irritate the inner lining of the vein causing formation of fibrous tissue which closes the vein
secondary hypertension
hypertension caused by other physical conditions such as pregnancy and kidney disease
serum lipid
a test that measures the amount of fatty substances in a sample of blood obtained by venipuncture
sinoatrial node
also known as the pacemaker of the heart
Superficial Thrombophlebitis
a type thrombophlebitis that is usually obvious and is accompanied by a cordlike or thready appearance to the vessel
sweat (diaphoresis)
the clear watery fluid produced by the sweat glands; also known as perspiration
tachycardia
abnormal rapidity of heart action, usually defined as a heart rate of over 100 beats per minute
tetralogy of Fallot
a congenital hear anomaly that consists of four defects: pulmonary stenosis, interventricular septal defect, dextraposition of the aorta so that it revieves blood from both ventricles, and hypertrophy of the right ventricle
thallium stress test
the combination of exercise stress testing with thallium imaging to assess changes in coronary blood flow during exercise
thrombophlebitis (DVT)
inflammation of a vein associated with the formation of a thrombus (clot)
thrombosis
an abnormal condition in which a clot develops in a blood vessel
transposition of the great vessels
a condition in which the two major arteries of the heart are reversed in position, which results in two noncommunicating circulatory systems
varicose veins
enlarged, superficial veins; a twisted dilatated vein with incomplete valves
vasoconstriction
narrowing of the lumen of a blood vessel
vegetation
an abnormal growth of tissue around a valve
vein stripping
a surgical procedure that consists of ligation (tying off) of the saphenous vein
ventricular tachycardia
a condition in which the ventricles of the heart beat at a rate greater than 100 beats per minute; characterized by three or more consecutive premature ventricular contractions.
aneurysm/o
aneurysm
angi/o
vessel
arter/o
artery
arteri/o
artery
arteriol/o
arteriole
ather/o
fatty
cardi/o
heart
coron/o
heart
echo-
sound
electr/o
electrical, electricity
endo-
within
-graphy
process of recording
megal/o
enlarged
my/o
muscle
ventricul/o
ventricle of the heart or brain