Renaissance and Reformation

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Terms in this set (...)

Secularism
A doctrine that rejects religion and religious considerations.
Humanism (Renaissance)
-the heightened emphasis on education, knowledge, individual potential, and rebirth of the classical style
Protestant Reformation
A religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches.
Counter Reformation
Catholic Church's attempt to stop the protestant movement and to strengthen the Catholic Church
Council of Trent
Reaffirmed traditional Catholic teachings, forbade the sale of indulgences
Printing Press
Revolutionized the ability to print information, allowed for cheaper books, greater literacy and the spread of new ideas. (Protestant Reformation)
Martin Luther
95 Thesis, posted in 1517, led to religious reform in Germany, denied papal power and absolutist rule. Claimed there were only 2 sacraments: baptism and communion.
Predestination
John Calvin's religious theory that God has already planned out a person's life.
Henry VIII
English king who created the Church of England after the Pope refused to annul his marriage (divorce with Church approval)
Medici Family
powerful banking family who ruled Florence in the 1400s, patrons of the arts
Machiavelli
Renaissance writer; politician, wrote The Prince, stated that a person must be ruthless to obtain and maintain political power. Fear is greater than love.
Dante
wrote the Divine Comedy
Erasmus
Dutch Humanist Wrote Praise of Folly. Believed the problems in the Catholic Church could be fixed; did not support the idea of a Reformation.
Leonardo da Vinci
Italian painter, engineer, musician, and scientist. The most versatile genius of the Renaissance, best known for The Last Supper (c. 1495) and Mona Lisa (c. 1503).
perspective
3 dimensional form of drawing using graphing and a vanishing point. Reborn during the Renaissance. One of the six characteristics of Renaissance art.
Indulgence
A pardon given by the Roman Catholic Church in return for repentance for sins
Salvation
(Christianity) the act of delivering from sin or saving from evil
Edict of Worms
made Martin Luther an outlaw in the Holy Roman Empire
Charles V
Holy Roman Emperor/Carlos I of Spain, sought to stop Protestantism and increase the power of Catholicism. He allied with the pope to stamp out heresy and maintain religious unity in Europe.
Peace of Augsburg
A treaty between Charles V and the German Protestant princes allowed for the leaders of each country to declare a state religlion
Michelangelo
Sculptor, painter, poet, engineer, and architect. Famous works include Sistine Chapel ceiling, Last Judgement, and the sculpture of David.
Petrarch
the father of Italian Renaissance humanism
Black Plague
Killed 1/3 of Europe's population
Ended the Middle Ages
95 Theses
Arguments written by Martin Luther against the Catholic church; called for reform and an end to the sale of indulgences.
Johann Gutenberg
German printer who was the first in Europe to print using movable type on a printing press.
Faith alone
How Martin Luther believed that salvation could be achieved
Jesuits
Also known as the Society of Jesus; founded by Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) as a teaching and missionary order to resist the spread of Protestantism.
Shakespeare
the leading English language poet and playwright of the Renaissance, supported by Queen Elizabeth I
Queen Elizabeth I
Ruled England for 50 years, supported the arts, increased the treasury, supported the exploration of the New World, built up the military, and established the Church of England (Protestant) as the main religion in England
Pope Julius II
The "Warrior-Pope"; most involved in war and politics; personally led armies against enemies; instituted reconstruction on St. Peter's Basilica.