AMERICAN HISTORY CHAP. 8

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Terms in this set (...)

Gilded Age
Term coined by Mark Twain to describe the post-Reconstruction era
Laissez-faire
the doctrine that states that government generally should not intervene in the marketplace
subsidy
A payment made by the government to encourage the development of certain key industries
Blue Laws
Regulation that prohibited certain private activities people considered immoral, such as drinking alcohol on Sundays
civil service
the government non elected workers
Pendleton Civil Service Act
1883 law that created a Civil Service Commission and stated that federal employees could not be required to contribute to campaign funds nor be fired for political reasons
rebate
a partial refund
Munn v. Illinois
1877 Supreme Court decision that allowed states to regulate certain businesses within their borders
Pogrom
violent massacre on a Jewish community
Steerage
A large open area beneath a ship's deck, often used to house traveling immigrants
quarantine
A time of isolation to prevent the spread of a disease
Ghetto
areas in which one ethnic or racial group dominated
Restrictive Covenants
agreements among homeowners not to sell real estate to certain groups of people
Chinese Exclusion Act
Law passed in 1882 that prohibited Chinese laborers from entering the country, but did not prevent entry of those who had previously established U.S. residence
Gentlemen's Agreement
1907 agreement between the United States and Japan that restricted Japanese immigration
alien
a noncitizen
suburb
Residential community surrounding a city
Tenement
A low-cost apartment building that often has poor standards of sanitation, safety, and comfort and is designed to house as many families as possible
Dumbell Tenements
a tenement building that is narrowed in the middle, forming air shafts on either side and allowing light and air in the rooms
political machine
unofficial city organization designed to keep a particular party or group in power
graft
Use of one's job to gain profit; a major source of income for political machines
Social Gospel Movement
A social reform movement that developed within religious institutions and sought to apply the teachings of Jesus directly to society
Settlement Houses
community center organized to provide various services to the urban poor
socialogy
term coined by philosopher Auguste Comte to describe the study of how people interact with one another in society
Nativism
A policy of favoring native-born individuals over foreign-born ones
Temperance Movement
An organized campaign to eliminate alcohol consumption
Prohibition
A ban on the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages
vice
immoral or corrupt behavior