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Chapter 18:Renewing the Sectional Struggle 1848-1854
Terms in this set (36)
open race election so the previous president was not running for his second term. Whigs decided to run Zachary Taylor who was a previous war hero. Democrats put up Lewis Cass and the free soil party ran Martin Van Buren. Zachary Taylor won but he died into his term and Millard Fillmore his running mate replaced him.
Gen. Lewis Cass (Dem.)
He was nominated as President after Polk and he evolved a doctrine of popular sovereignty. He argued that slavery should be kept out of Congress and left to the people.
Gen. Zachery Taylor (Whig)
the hero of the battles on monterrey and buena vista, became US president
The concept that political power rests with the people who can create, alter, and abolish government. People express themselves through voting and free participation in government
Formed in 1847 - 1848, dedicated to opposing slavery in newly acquired territories such as Oregon and ceded Mexican territory.
Martin Van Buren
was the eighth President of the United States (1837-1841). Before his presidency, he was the eighth Vice President (1833-1837) and the tenth Secretary of State (1829-1831), both under Andrew Jackson.
Van Buren was a key organizer of the Democratic Party, a dominant figure in the Second Party System, and the first president not of British or Scots-Irish descent—his family was Dutch. He was the first president to have been born a United States citizen, since all of his predecessors were born British subjects before the American Revolution. He is the only president not to have spoken English as his first language, having grown up speaking Dutch, and the first president from New York.
California gold rush (1848)
49ers flood the state in search of fast wealth. Few have slaves, hence, when they petition for statehood, they oppose slavery. This angers southern states
California admission application (1849)
Californians were so eager to join the union that they created and ratified a constitution and elected a government before receiving approval from Congress. California was split down the middle by the Missouri Compromise line, so there was a conflict over whether it should be slave or free.
A secret, shifting network which aided slaves escaping to the North and Canada, mainly after 1840.
American abolitionist. Born a slave on a Maryland plantation, she escaped to the North in 1849 and became the most renowned conductor on the Underground Railroad, leading more than 300 slaves to freedom.
Fugitive slave laws
By 1850 Southerners were demanding a new and more stringent fugitive slave law. The slave law in 1850 was more like bribing. the fleeing slaves could not testify on their own behalf, and they were denied a trial. The federal commisssioner recieved $10 if the slave was not freed.
A northern American politician. He developed the American System as well as negotiated numerous compromises.
John C. Calhoun
(1830s-40s) Leader of the Fugitive Slave Law, which forced the cooperation of Northern states in returning escaped slaves to the south. He also argued on the floor of the senate that slavery was needed in the south. He argued on the grounds that society is supposed to have an upper ruling class that enjoys the profit of a working lower class.
Famous American politician and orator. he advocated renewal and opposed the financial policy of Jackson. Many of the principles of finance he spoke about were later incorporated in the Federal Reserve System. Would later push for a strong union.
Seventh of March Speech (1850)
Famous speech by Daniel Webster in 1850; urged North and South to compromise and that a new fugitive slave law be formed.
William H. Seward
A Governor of New York, United States Senator and the United States Secretary of State under Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson., 1867; bought the Russian colony of Alaska for $7.2 million.
Millard Fillmore (1850)
13th president and vice president
Compromise of 1850
(1) California admitted as free state, (2) territorial status and popular sovereignty of Utah and New Mexico, (3) resolution of Texas-New Mexico boundaries, (4) federal assumption of Texas debt, (5) slave trade abolished in DC, and (6) new fugitive slave law; advocated by Henry Clay and Stephen A. Douglas
Election of 1852
BETWEEN: Franklin Pierce (Democrat) and Winfield Scott; RESULTS: WHIG party splits over nomination Fillmore v. Scott; Antislavery North vs. Southern Whigs that disliked Winfield Scott; Doomed Whig Party - Democratic party united under Pierce! Leads to formation of sectional parties instead of national parties. VICTOR: Franklin Pierce (Democrat)
Franklin Pierce (Dem.)
an American politician and the fourteenth President of the United States. Pierce's popularity in the North declined sharply after he came out in favor of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, repealing the Missouri Compromise and reopening the question of the expansion of slavery in the West.
Gen. Winfield Scott (Whig)
United States general who was a hero of the War of 1812 and who defeated Santa Anna in the Mexican War (1786-1866) "Old Fuss and Feathers"
Whig Party demise (1852)
"The party was ultimately destroyed by the question of whether to allow the expansion of slavery to the territories. With deep fissures in the party on this question, the anti-slavery faction successfully prevented the renomination of own incumbent President Fillmore in the 1852 presidential election; instead, the party nominated General Winfield Scott. Most Whig party leaders thereupon quit politics (as Lincoln did temporarily) or changed parties" (Wikipedia)
A proslavery American adventurer from the South, he led an expedition to seize control on Nicaragua in 1855. He wanted to petition for annexation it as a new slave state but failed when several Latin American countries sent troops to oust him before the offer was made.
Clayton-Bulwer Treaty (1850)
1850 - Treaty between U.S. and Great Britain agreeing that neither country would try to obtain exclusive rights to a canal across the Isthmus of Panama. Abrogated by the U.S. in 1881.
Com. Matthew C. Perry (Japan, 1854)
Persuaded the Japanese to sign a treaty allowing commercial transactions between the US and Japan
Ostend Manifesto (1854)
a statement by American envoys abroad to pressure Spain into selling Cuba to the United States; the declaration suggested that is Spain would not sell Cuba, the United States would be justifies in seizing it. It was quickly repudiated by the U.S. government but it added to the belief that a "slave power" existed and was active in Washington.
Pacific railroad route
"The Union Pacific Railroad was incorporated on July 1, 1862 in the wake of the Pacific Railroad Act of 1862. Under the guidance of its dominant stockholder Dr. Thomas Clark Durant, the namesake of the city of Durant, Iowa, the first rails were laid in Omaha, Nebraska. The Union Pacific Railroad was joined together with the Central Pacific Railroad at Promontory Summit, Utah, in 1869, hence creating the first transcontinental railroad in North America."
An American statesman and politician who served as President of the Confederate States of America for its entire history from 1861 to 1865
Gadsden Purchase (1853)
U.S. acquisition of land south of the Gila River from Mexico for $10 million; the land was needed for a possible transcontinental railroad line through the southern United States. However, the route was never used.
Sen. Stephen A. Douglas
Senator from Illinois who ran for president against Abraham Lincoln. Wrote the Kansas-Nebraska Act and the Freeport Doctrine
Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854)
Douglas' plan to build railroad through middle of country; dividing Nebraska Territory into Kansas and Nebraska Territories; popular sovereignty to allow slavery or not
Missouri Compromise of 1820
Allowed Missouri to enter the union as a slave state, Maine to enter the union as a free state, prohibited slavery north of latitude 36˚ 30' within the Louisiana Territory (1820)
Republican Party (1854)
organized in 1854 by antislavery Whigs, Democrats, and Free Soilers in response to the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act; nominated John C. Frémont for president in 1856 and Abraham Lincoln in 1860
Harriet Beecher Stowe
(1811-1896) American author and daughter of Lyman Beecher, she was an abolitionist and author of the famous antislavery novel, Uncle Tom's Cabin.
Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852)
Harriet Beecher Stowe's widely read novel that dramatized the horrors of slavery. It heightened Northern support for abolition and escalated the sectional conflict.
Hinton Helper (1857)
a Southern critic of slavery during the 1850s who wrote a book entitled The Impending Crisis of The South The book put forth the notion that slavery hurt the economic prospects of non-slaveholders, and was an impediment to the growth of the entire region of the South.
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