Environmental Soil Review
Terms in this set (42)
Weathering in which solid rock is fragmented by mechanical processes that do not change its chemical composition.
The process that breaks down rock through chemical changes
the physical removal of rock fragments from a landscape or ecosystem
the accumulation or depositing if eroded material such as sediment, rock fragments, or soil
a mix of geologic and organic compounds. Often called "Earth's dynamic membrane"
the rock material underlying soil from which its inorganic components are derived
soil layers, a specific layer or stratum of soil or subsoil in a vertical cross section of land
the top-most soil layer that has organic matter in various stages of decomposition
the topsoil layer that is a zone of overlying organic material and underlying mineral material
a zone of accumulation of metals and nutrients, commonly known as subsoil
the least weathered soil horizon that is similar to the parent material
cation exchange capacity
the ability of a particular soil to absorb and release cations. This is sometimes referred to as the nutrient holding capacity
the loss of some or all of the ability of soils to support plant growth
the open space in a soil
the ability of water to move through a soil
sand, silt, clay
List the soil particles in order from largest to smallest
soil particle that has a negative charge and can attract positive ions
a mixture of sand, silt and clay that results in a fertile and nutrient rich soil
A student puts soil into a graduated cylinder and finds that in a sample that contains 50.0 ml there are 5 ml of sand. What percent sand is the soil sample?
when excess nutrients enter water the uncontrolled growth of plant material is called
layers of soil are called
a cross section of the soil is called a
topsoil that is dark and rich in nutrients is called the ____layer
the best type of soil for growing farm crops
Physical properties of sand include good
water movement capacity. True or False
Which type of soil would most likely become waterlogged and have poor drainage? clay, silt or sand
parent rock in the Highland Park area that was formed from ancient seas
How much more acidic is a soil that is a pH of 4 from a pH of 7
a pH of 7 is considered to be ?
hydrogen ion concentration
pH is a measure of the _________
soil particle type that allows for movement of water
Nitrogen, Potassium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Calcium and Sulfur
the 6 soil macronutrients are
Soil Conservation Act 1936
the federal legislation that protects soil
when did the Dust Bowl happen?
What soil is 20% Clay, 40% silt and 40% Sand
This occurs when soil loses its ability to grow crops
A soil that is 40% clay, 10% silt and 50% sand
Silty Clay Loam
A soil that is 10% sand, 60% Silt and 30% Clay is what type of soil?
What is the largest soil particle? (sand silt or clay?)
What is the smallest soil particle? (sand, silt or clay?)
clay has what charge? positive or negative?
Most soil nutrients have a ______ charge so they are attracted to clay easily.