AP Latin Virgil

Everything in AP Latin
potential subjunctive
expresses the opinion of the speaker as an opinion
optative subjunctive
expresses a wish; often introduced or utinam (O that)
Volative Subjunctive
expresses one's will or what one wants to be the case; 5 kinds: Hortatory, jussive, prohibitive, concessive, deliberative
hortatory subjunctive
command in the 1st person plural
jussive subjunctive
command in the third singular or plural, sometimes second
prohibitive subjunctive
second and third persons; used instead of a negative imperative
concessive subjunctive
indicates something that is taken for granted or conceded to the argument
deliberative subjunctive
used in a question that expects an imperative answer; used in questions implying doubt, indignation, impossibility, obligation, or propriety
purpose clause
expresses the purpose for which an action is done; introduced by ut or quo (so that / in order that"; sometimes introduced by a relative pronoun
relative clause of characteristic
expresses a quality or characteristic for a general or unspecific antecedent / set of people
result clause
expresses the result that occurs because of a fact; introduced by ut or ut non
fear clause
expressing a thing feared
causal clause
expresses the reason or cause for a fact; introduced by quod, quia, quoniam, cum, or quando
Cum temporal
cum takes the imperfect or pluperfect subjunctive when explaining the situation or the circumstances under which something occurs.
cum....tum concessive
with the subjunctive cum can mean while or although and its correlating tum means at the same time.
antequam / postquam clause
when followed by the subjunctive, antequam and postquam express an act that is anticipated or a general truth
dum, modo, dummodo/ proviso clause
introduces a clause expressing a wish or a proviso
Substantive clause
an entire clause serves as the subject or object of a verb
volative substantive clause
substantive clauses of the volitive serve as indirect commands; (I ask that you read the letter)
optatice substantive clause
verbs of desiring take the subjunctive with or without ut
result substantive clause
a specialization of the normal result clause in which the result in the object of a verb of doing
quin substantive clause
quin clauses occur as the subject or object of vers ob doubt or omission
indirect questions
when a question occurs as the object of a verb within the question is put into the subjunctive.
subjunctive by attraction
relative clauses which depend on infinitives or on subjunctives, and which are closely connected to the entire thought of the sentence, have verbs in the subjunctive
Future Less Vivid
has either the present subjunctive in both clauses or in the perfect subjunctive
present expresses an ongoing action; perfect expresses a completed action
preposition in the middle of a phrase
when a character goes off on a tangent
when someone stops in punishing one person to punish someone else
too few conjuntions
ellipses of speaking verbs
just a name, no verb to go with the quote
spiritual synechdoche
too many conjunctions
a comparison using like or as
substantive participle
when a participle stands alone and takes on t he characteristics of a noun
a part representing a whole (mouth for face)
idiom (res publica)
syncopated verb
when a verb loses some of its letters
double dative
dative or purpose and dative of reference together
ablative absolute
ablative part + ablative noun: translated when with or after
in + accusative
into or against
perfect passive participle in the accusative or ablative- translated like present active infinitive
cum without an ablative
cum clause
ne + subjunctive
negative purpose clause