23 terms



Terms in this set (...)

Frederick Taylor
Is known as the "father of scientific management". Taylor believed that organizations should analyze the tasks that they need to have performed, then develop a set of procedures for the best way of performing them.
Dougles McGregor
Ascribed to the behavioral management theory. He is most famous for his concepts of the Theory X manager and the Theory Y manager. According to McGregor, the Theory X manager sees employees as being essentially irresponsible, untrustworthy, and lazy, whereas the Theory Y manager sees them as being responsible, trustworthy, and motivated. Influence by the Hawthorne studies and Maslow.
Frank and Lilian Galbraith
Known for studying job motions. They performed the first motion study to determine the best possible method for doing a job. They observed both efficient and inefficient bricklayers at work, and then reduced the motions needed to do the job down to a few basic ones. Eliminating the unnecessary motions improved efficiency and productivity tremendously.
Max Weber
Best known for being proponent of an objective, non-personal form of organization known as a bureaucracy.
Henri Fayol
Responsible for developing 14 principles of management, which were based on his own management experiences. They include such principles as work specialization, unity of command, centralization, and team work. He was affiliated with the classical administrative school of management.
Chester Barnard
Developed the acceptance theory of management, which focuses on an employee's willingness to accept those who possess legitimate authority to act. Introduced the idea of of the informal organization. Bridge to the behavioral management theory.
Hawthorne studies
Demonstrated that an increase in productivity is a direct result of a worker-friendly supervisory system. The general conclusion for the studies were that human relations and the social needs of workers are crucial aspects of business management. The studies actually refuted the theories of the classical management school of which Fayol was a part.
Edward Dem
Credited with launching the Total Quality Management movement.
Hawthorne effect
Describes the special attention researches give to a study's subjects and the impact that the attention has on the study's findings.
Henry Mintzberg
Author of "The Nature of Managerial Work", describes a set of ten roles that a manager fills. Managerial roles fall into the following three categories: informational, interpersonal, and decisional.
Henry Gantt
Based on time,instead of quantity, volume or weight, this visual display chart has been a widely used planning and control tool since its development in 1910.
Mary Parker Follett
Stressed the importance of an organization establishing common goals for its employees. Thought differently than theorist of her day who thought of people as robots. She thought about ethics, power and leadership. She stressed people rather than techniques. Dismissed in her day but managers today model her ideas.
Abraham Maslow
Humanistic psychologist known for his "Hierarchy of Needs" and the concept of "self-actualization"
McClelland's ACQUIRED NEEDS Theory
states that three needs - achievement, affiliation, and power - are major motives determining people's behavior in the workplace
Adams' EQUITY Theory
A theory that states that people will be motivated when they perceive that they are being treated fairly; the idea that employees try to maintain equity between inputs and outputs compared to others in similar positions
Vroom's EXPECTANCY Theory
argues that work motivation is determined by individual beliefs regarding effort-performance relationships and work outcomes
Locke's GOAL-SETTING Theory
Specific and difficult goals, with self-generated feedback, lead to higher performance
Hersey-Blanchard's Situational Leadership Model
Is based on the amount of direction (task behavior) and amount of socio-emotional support (relationship behavior) a leader must provide given the situation and the level of maturity of the followers. Once maturity levels are identified a manager can determine the appropriate leadership style: telling, selling, participating or delegating.
Fiedler's Contingency Theory
in order to maximize work group performance, leaders must be matched to the right leadership situation
Tannenbaum and Schmidt
They stated that a leader's style fell somewhere between boss-centered and subordinate-centered.
Clayton Alderfer
believed that a person can be motivated by needs at more than one level at a time. ERG theory has only three needs: existence, relatedness, and growth.
B.F. Skinner
This is known as reinforcement theory. There are different types of reinforcement used to influence behavior--positive reinforcement (rewards) and negative reinforcement (punishment).
David McClelland
named three--achievement, power, and affiliation. Achievement is a strong motivator in salesmen, managers, entrepreneurs, etc.. Power involves wanting to have influence and control; affiliation is the desire for friendly relationships.