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Environmental Test Chapter 3
Terms in this set (67)
the mostly solid, rocky part of the Earth; extends from the center of the core to the surface of the crust.
all the water at and near the surface of the earth, 97% of which is in oceans
thin layer; composed almost entirely of light elements;outermost layer
layer beneath the crust, makes up 68% of Earths mass
earth´s innermost layer
outer, cool, rigid, layer that includes crust and uppermost part of the mantle (15-300km thick), divided into tectonic plates
solid pliable layer of the mantle made of rock (under the lithosphere)
a block of lithosphere that consists of the crust and the rigid, outermost part of the mantle
the process by which rocks break down as a result of chemical reactions
a process in which the material of Earth's surface are loosened, dissolved, or worn away and transported from one place to another by a natural agent, such as wind, water, ice, or gravity
nitrogen(78%), oxygen(21%), carbon dioxide, and other gases(1%) include argon, carbon dioxide, methane, and water vapor
lowest layer to Earth's surface where weather conditions exist
includes the ozone layer 18-50km
lower part of the mantle, coldest layer where temps could reach -93 deg. C extends 80km, below the lithosphere and the asthenosphere
layer creates the Aurora Borealis at the North and South poles, temps are as high as 2,000 deg. C, lower thermosphere is the ionosphere
the lower part of the thermosphere, where electrically charged particles called ions are found
a gas molecule that is made up of 3 oxygen atoms, found in the stratosphere
the transfer of energy as electromagnetic waves(visible light & infrared waves light)
transfer of energy as heat through a material
transfer of heat energy by the air currents
gases at the surface and in the air absorb & re-radiate infrared radiation w/o it Earth would be too cold for life to exist
movement of water from the ocean, to the atmosphere, to the land, and back to the ocean
process by which liquid water is heated by the sun and rises into the atmosphere as water vapor, majority of water evaporates from the world's oceans
water vapor forms water droplets on dust particles, forms clouds
larger droplets fall from the clouds as rain, sleet, snow, or hail
ocean water is the concentration of all the dissolved salt it contains
having a low salt concentration (less than 1%)
consists of all life on Earth and all parts of the Earth in which life exists, including land, water, and the atmosphere; extends 12km into the ocean & 9km into the atmosphere
the gliding of 1 plate under the other is not smooth but jerky
5 physical properties of the Earth (outermost to innermost)
lithosphere, asthenosphere, mesosphere, outer core, inner core
dense liquid layer
made of metals, iron, and nickel, extremely hot 4,000-5,400 deg. C
3 compositional layers of the Earth
crust (less than 1%), mantle (64%), core (35%)
4 Parts of Earth's System
geosphere(rock), atmosphere(air), hydrosphere(water), biosphere(living things)
How do scientists study the Earth's interior? What do they measure? What has this helped scientists to discover about Earth?
Scientists use seismic waves, measure in speed and direction, showed Earth is made of different layers
Where are the tectonic plates found?
What's located on the tectonic plates? What are the 3 ways the tectonic plates move?
continents; move away, collide, or slip-n-slide past one another
How are mountains formed?
tectonic plates colliding
a break in the Earth's crust along which blocks of the crust slide relative to one another
vibrations of the Earth's crust
energy released by the earthquake
mountain built from magma, occur near tectonic plate boundaries
melted rock that rises from the Earth's mantle to the surface
What type of erosion wears away at rocks and makes them smoother over time? What are the 2 main types of erosion and where is each type found?
chemical weathering; water(rivers and oceans) & wind(beaches and deserts) erosion
4 main layers of the atmosphere
troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere
List the locations of all the water in the hydrosphere.
oceans, lakes, rivers, wetlands, polar ice caps, soil, rock layers, and clouds
movement of water from the ocean, to the atmosphere, to the land, & back to the ocean
3 ways water moves in the water cycle
evaporation, condensation, precipitation
What is the world ocean?
Single, large, interconnected body of water
How much is Earth is covered by oceans?
Oceans largest to smallest
Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Arctic
Which ocean contains the deepest point in any ocean? What is the name of this deep point? Where is it located?
Pacific ocean, deepest point: Challenger Deep located in the Philippine islands
Why is the Arctic Ocean special? How is the pack ice formed?
most of Arctic is covered w/floating ice; pack ice forms when either wind or waves drive together frozen sea water
Ocean water vs fresh water
ocean water contains more salt than fresh water
How do the oceans get warm? What happens to the temp as you get deeper?
sun; the water gets colder
3 main zones of the ocean
deep zone, thermocline, surface zone
Main purpose of the Earth's oceans
absorb and store energy from the sunlight
streamlike movements of water that occur at or near the surface warm, move by wind, warm & cold water currents do NOT mix easily
these waters move around the ocean basins by density driven forces and gravity
Most of the water on Earth is...
How much on the water on Earth is freshwater?
Where is most of the freshwater on Earth? Is it usable? Why or why not?
not usable b/c they're stuck ice caps and glaciers
How much of the freshwater is available for daily human use?
the water that is beneath Earth's surface
the rock layer that stores and allows the flow of groundwater
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