PERSONALITY THEORY, INDIVIDUAL TREATMENT Ch 14
Terms in this set (61)
-An enduring pattern of perceiving, relating to, and thinking about the environment and oneself.
-Personality traits are prominent aspects of personality that re exhibited in a wide range of important and personal contexts.
According to some theories personality:
Is shaped by whatever forces motivate human behavior:
-The need for acceptance
-The need for relationships
- Social factors as family and culture.
Personality development is largely completed by the end of childhood
(psychoanalytic theory/psychosexual stages of personality)
-The nature of our repressed wishes and desires is
erotic and sexual
-The goal of human behavior is simply to reduce the tension created by the accumulation of too much energy and to restore a state of equilibrium.
What drives behavior according to Freud?
Human behavior then is motivated by the need to satisfy:
-Eros (sexual expression) and
-Thanatos (aggressive instincts)
Freud and personality
Personality traits depends on how and when the sexual drive is frustrated
Human sexual energy
Freud's 5 stages of psychosexual development
Personality development is largely complete by the end of childhood.
Freud's 5 stages of development - Image
Parts of Personality according to Freud
1. ID- pleasure principle=> Seeks intimidate gratification, the oldest and the basis for the other two. The id operates according to the pleasure principle,
2. Ego- mediates between the ID and the environment; is the executive of the personality and follows the reality principle.
3. Superego- It consists of two subsystems, the conscience and the ego-ideal (ideal self-image). The superego "strives for perfection, admonishes the ego when moral codes are violated and creates feelings of guilt.
Mature, healthy, adult personality, Freud
Healthy people have an ego that governs and controls both the ID and the Superego in a constant battle to maintain balance between the needs and drives of the world.
-Personality disorders are a result of either the id or the superego gaining control.
Erick Erickson- Phychosocial stages
-Erikson's work is built on Freud's psychosexual stages, but adds the impact of society and also extends development into mature adulthood.
-Each of the stages presents a developmental task or "crisis" in which there is the potential for "progress or regression, integration and retardation" .
Erick Erickson- Personality traits
-If tasks are incomplete, they form a residue that impairs ability to complete each subsequent stage and the personality will fail to develop fully.
Erikson's 8 psychosocial stages
1. Oral sensory--basic trust vs. mistrust
2. Muscular anal--autonomy vs. shame and doubt
3. Locomotor-genital--initiative vs. guilt
4. Latency--industry vs. inferiority
5. Puberty and adolescence--identity vs. role confusion
6. Young adulthood--intimacy vs. isolation
7. Adulthood--generativity vs. stagnation
8. Maturity--ego identity vs. despair
Erikson psychosocial stages- image
Piaget's (1936) theory of cognitive development
Explains how a child constructs a mental model of the world.
-He disagreed with the idea that intelligence was a fixed trait, and regarded cognitive development as a process which occurs due to biological maturation and interaction with the environment.
-Piaget showed that young children think in strikingly different ways compared to adults.
There Are Three Basic Components To Piaget's Cognitive Theory:
1. Schemas-building blocks of knowledge-.
2. Adaptation processes that enable the transition from one stage to another -equilibrium, assimilation and accommodation-.
3. Stages of Cognitive Development:
Can be defined as a set of linked mental representations of the world, which we use both to understand and to respond to situations.
The assumption is that we store these mental representations and apply them when needed.
Assimilation & Accommodation
- Which is using an existing schema to deal with a new object or situation.
- This happens when the existing schema (knowledge) does not work, and needs to be changed to deal with a new object or situation.
Piaget's Stages of Development
Piaget proposed four stages of cognitive development:
1. Sensorimotor stage (birth to age 2)
2. Pre-operational stage (from age 2 to age 7)
3. Concrete operational stage (from age 7 to age 11).
4. Formal operational stage (age 11+ - adolescence and adulthood).
Piaget's Stages of Development - image
Sensorimotor Stage (Birth-2 yrs)
The main achievement during this stage is object permanence - knowing that an object still exists, even if it is hidden.
It requires the ability to form a mental representation (i.e. a schema) of the object.
Preoperational Stage (2-7 years)
During this stage, young children are able to think about things symbolically. This is the ability to make one thing - a word or an object - stand for something other than itself.
Thinking is still egocentric, and the infant has difficulty taking the viewpoint of others.
Preoperational Stage (2-7 years) -image
Concrete Operational Stage (7-11 years)
Concrete stage is a major turning point in the child's cognitive development, because it marks the beginning of logical or operational thought.
This means the child can work things out internally in their head (rather than physically try things out in the real world).
Children can conserve number (age 6), mass (age 7), and weight (age 9). Conservation is the understanding that something stays the same in quantity even though its appearance changes
Formal Operational Stage (11 years and over)
The formal operational stage begins at approximately age eleven and lasts into adulthood. During this time, people develop the ability to think about abstract concepts, and logically test hypotheses.
Carl Jung- Analytic psychology
The structure of the personality consistent of a network of interacting systems that strive toward eventual harmony.
The primary structural components include:
- The ego, or conscious perception of self
- The personal unconscious, unique to each person
- The collective unconscious, the residue of human evolutionary development shared by all people and consisting of archetypes
Carl Jung's archetypes
(universal thought forms and potential ways of being).
- the social role that one is assigned by society and one's understanding of it.
- the potential or actual unsocial thoughts, feelings, and behaviors.
- (feminine) and
(masculine)- the blend of sexual/gender characteristics.
- the central archetype which strives for unity and organizes all of the other archetypes.
-Theory broadened the understanding of personality development and psychological problems to
include the social context
in which they occurred.
-Social interest: people's personalities are shaped by their need to belong and be recognized.
-Adler's Personality Theory drive is the need to overcome the feelings of inferiority.
-Neurosis is the result of unrealistic goals, overcompensation for feelings of inferiority, and a lack of social interest.
-Inferiority is a feeling that humans feel since they are born. They grow up being dependent on their parents and feeling like they cannot do anything on their own.
-It is humans drive to overcome inferiority and become superior which causes humans to act.
-Humans act to achieve perfection and superiority. -Those that do feel like they are being overwhelmed by feelings of inferiority will develop an inferiority complex.
-An inferiority complex brings an exaggerated feeling of inferiority on the sufferer and they will feel less motivated to strive for superiority.
Adler's effects of the order of the family
-Only child gets pampered which cause the child to feel inferior when left to do things on their own.
-Firstborn get all the attention at first but then all that attention goes towards the middle child. Now the firstborn feels neglected and inferior and develops to reserved and conservative.
-The middle child will be competitive and constantly try to beat the firstborn.
-The youngest child will be pampered and will feel inferior when left to do things by themselves.
-The youngest child could also feel the need to constantly beat their older siblings like the middle child.
Karen Horney- Psychosocial analysis
-Stressed "the forces within the family that influence personality".
-Anxiety is the basic human condition, but not inevitable. It's is created by social forces.
-Most people have a discrepancy between the real self and the ideal self. The greater the discrepancy, the less of their emotional energy is available for developing their potential.
-Lack of nurturing relationship with parents results in feelings of rejection, worthlessness, and hostility (basic anxiety).
-Personalities are formed as people develop defenses to permit them to cope and minimize basic anxiety.
Karen Horney three types of neurotic trends
1. Moving toward- accepting feelings of helplessness and becoming compliant to win the affection of others
2. Moving against- accepting the environment as hostile and rebelling against others to maintain control and protect oneself from harm.
3. Moving away- accepting little in common with others and isolating oneself to minimize the anxiety of having to interact with others.
Horney's psychology of women
"Essence of sexual life lies in its biological creative powers".
-A greater role in sexual life belongs to the female because she is the one who is able to bear and nurse children...[demonstrating] her basic superiority.
Harry Stack Sullivan (Interpersonal psychiatry)
-An individual exists only in the context of relationships with other people.
-Personality is the characteristic ways in which an individual deals with other people in his or her relationships.
-Primarily concerned with anxieties arising from social insecurity.
-Anxiety poses a threat to self-esteem and people strive for its opposite, a sense of security or well-being.
Stack Sullivan's security operations
-increase security and decrease anxiety-
Some security operations are:
●Sublimation - the discharge of uncomfortable feelings in socially acceptable ways.
●Selective inattention - the failure to observe aspects of interpersonal activities that might increase anxiety. Selective inattention limits a person's ability to cope effectively.
●As if - acting out a false but practical role, which can bring negative or positive consequences.
Stack Sullivan's 2 components of personality:
1. Dynamisms are "a pattern of energy transformation that characterizes an individual's interpersonal relations". For example, the dynamism of fear stems from earlier interactions in which the child was made to feel unsafe.
-The self-system is a dynamism that is made up of all of the security operations.
-Three selves emerge out of the phases of development:
(satisfaction with self, built out of rewarding, anxiety-free experiences);
(the collection of anxiety provoking experiences to be avoided); and
(evolving images of self that are seen as dreadful that must be kept from awareness).
2. Personifications are "a group of feelings, attitudes, and thoughts that have arisen out of one's interpersonal experiences" for example "good mother." Personifications are rarely accurate.
Harry Stack Sullivan Stages of Development
Each stage has a strong social component.
Harry Stack Sullivan Three Cognitive Processes
experience in infancy when there is not distinction between self and the other.
experience in which the individual sees causal connections that are not based on reality or logic.
experience which relies on consensual validation, providing a common ground for interpersonal understanding.
- Carl Rogers - Self theory
- Abraham Maslow - Hierarchy of needs
Carl Rogers- Actualization
Humans have one basic motive, that is the tendency to self-actualize => to fulfill one's potential and achieve the highest level of 'human-beingness' we can.
-Rogers believed that people are inherently good, for a person to achieve self-actualization they must be in a state of congruence.
Carl Rogers - Self theory
-People need to be loved and accepted in order to move toward actualization.
-Love and acceptance is evidenced by unconditional positive regard from others.
-People learn to see themselves as they perceive that others see them, either positively or negatively.
-The conditions placed on the availability of regard from others create an internal system with conditions of worth by which each person judges him/herself.
-The individual cannot feel good about himself unless he is living up to the conditions of worth. -People respond to others and events according to their subjective view of reality, shaped by the experiences they have had (self-experiences).
-The self-experiences altogether constitute each person's sense of self.
-When there is incongruence between what the person perceives to be his real self and his ideal self, he learns to sacrifice self-actualization in order to gain love and acceptance by satisfying the conditions of worth.
Abraham Maslow - Hierarchy of needs
-Humans innately strive for self-actualization.
-To achieve successfully higher levels of development each person must substantially satisfy his needs at lower levels.
-Maslow conceptualized five sets of needs in a hierarchy.
Maslow 5 sets of needs in a hierarchy:
1. Self actualization> realistic, independent, capable of friendship.
2. Need for Self-esteem> competence, mastery
3. Need for Love and Belonging> to give and receive, belong to a group.
4.Need for Security> Stability , order, consitency
5. Physiological Needs> biological survival; food and shelter.
BF Skinner- Behavioral Theory
-Simply, if a behavior is at least periodically reinforced, it is likely to be repeated. If a behavior is never reinforced, it will not.
- By controlling the environments in which people live, they could be helped to reach the highest level of development.
Social learning theory Albert Bandura (1977)
Behavior is learned from the environment through the process of observational learning.
-Children observe the people around them behaving in various ways. This is illustrated during the famous Bobo doll experiment.
John Rotter & Albert Bandura =>Observational Learning.
-Personality characteristics are learn, and the learning comes from interacting with the social environment.
-People develop cognitive constructs that determine their reactions to other people and events.
Personalities are not fixed, they are situation specific
-people behave according to circumstances-.
Cognitive constructs include:
Values and goals, expectancies about the consequences of behavior, and cognitive categories or ways of understanding people objects, and events.
- A trait is a "relatively stable
predisposition to behave in a certain way
which presumably stays with the person as he goes from on environment to the other".
- The predisposition may or may not be expressed (depends in the environment).
- Traits are not all of nothing
- Traits are internal qualities which are not direly observable.
Dimension Theory - Raymond Catell
Prominent trait theorist, Catell identified 16 personality traits and developed a widely used questionnaire; "16 PF" to measure them.
They are described by polar opposites.
Models of individual Psychoterapy
2. Client Centered
- Current behavior, thought and emotions are essentially determined by the individual's early, largely unconscious, developmental history.
- The goal of analytic treatment is;
Insight or making the unconscious conscious
-Re-experiencing early traumatic memories may provide the patient with a corrective emotional experience.
-Creates a neutral atmosphere in which the client naturally projects neurotic conflicts onto the therapist as he begins to relive the unconscious conflicts with her primary caretakers. -Freud referred to this process as transference.-
-The therapist forms an alliance with the client's ego in order to "modulate and modify instinctual forces".
-The therapist is nondirective, nonintrusive, and nonjudgmental.
-The therapist asks a patient to free associate, i.e., to say whatever floats into his/her mind
to encourage the development of a neurotic transference.
-As the neurotic transference is cured, the patient is freed from the hold of the primary neurosis.
Neo-Freudian Analytic Theory
- View humans as capable of mastering their instincts
- Ego is more autonomous and adaptive
- Emphasize socio-cultural determinants
-Focus in psychological health, not just pathology.
-Therapists tend to be more active and directive and use more "real" aspects of the therapy relationship, not just transference.
Brief Psycho-dynamic Psychoterapy
- Models that attempt to make rapid change, often related to a specific problem, rather than on the reconstruction of the personality
- These therapies tend to be anxiety-provoking and confrontational.
-The goal is to effect a permanent correction in "at least one habitual, characteristic pattern of cognition, affect, or behavior".
Client Center therapy - principle
Individuals in conflict possess vast resources for self-understanding and growth.
They can be tapped through the experiencing of a therapist's:
-acceptance, or unconditional positive regard,
Client Center therapy
- The goal is to remove the obstacles that impede the individual's growth.
- The primary tool is the attitude of the therapist toward the client.
-She strives to make sure the client feels understood.
-She provides unconditional positive regard (regard without conditions of worth)
-Empathy, believing that what the client thinks and feels and is important and that he is the best judge of his/her own behaviors and aspirations.
-The therapy helps clients develop congruence between his perception of his real self and his ideal self.
These therapies base their ideas of dysfunction and change on the principles of => Operant and classical conditioning.
Developed by Skinner and Watson.
* Radical behaviorists focus in current maladaptive behaviors and the antecedents and reinforces that maintain them.
* Maladaptive behaviors (and all behaviors) are learn and can be modified.
* The key to change is to understand the connections between a stimulus and a subsequent response and to manipulate reinforcement contingencies.
* Behaviorist subject their therapeutic interventions to scientific verification.
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy CBT - principles
Cognitive-behavioral therapists include emotions, particularly anxiety, as a focus of treatment.
-At the heart of CBT is an assumption that a
person's mood is directly related to his or her patterns of thought
. Negative, dysfunctional thinking affects a person's mood, sense of self, behavior, and even physical state.
-They consider cognitions to be an intervening variable between a stimulus and a response.
-Therapists are often directive, acting as models and coaches with clients.
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy CBT
CBT helps clients to:
- Become aware of cognitive processes
- Take responsibility for their problems
- Treat assumptions as hypothesis
- Build skills necessary for successful interpersonal interactions.
CBT techniques -A
-Journaling: This technique is a way of "gathering data" about our moods and our thoughts.
-Unraveling Cognitive Distortions: Identifying and challenging our harmful automatic thoughts, which frequently fall into one of the categories listed earlier.
-Cognitive Restructuring: When you discover a belief that is destructive or harmful, you can begin to challenge it.
-Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PMR):This is a familiar technique to those who practice mindfulness. Similar to the body scan.
CBT techniques -B
Client learns consequences of non-assertive behavior and then rehearse more assertive ones.
Maladaptive behavior is pair with and undesirable consequence in order to de-condition the behavior. EX; alcohol can be paired with medication that induses nausea.
Technique use to increase desirable behaviors. The rewards are determined in advance and become part of a contract
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Psychology | Sdorow, Rickabaugh, Betz
Psych and Soc Ch 6.1 Personality
Identity and Personality
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
NCE Counseling and Helping Relationships
NCE Social and Cultural Diversity
Human Growth and Development (NCE)
Research; Building Theory and Evaluating Therapy Ch 26
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
MCAT PSYCHOLOGY Scientists & Theories To Know
MCAT Psych Who Did What
Psychology's Key Contributors