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72 terms

Ch 10 Anatomy

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central nervous system
includes brain and spinal cord
brain
located in the cranium
spinal cord
located in the spinal cavity
peripheral nervous system
consists of all the nerves connecting the CNS to the rest of the body
sensory function
one of the functions of the nervous system, nerves gather information from inside & outside the body
sensory function
carry the information to the CNS (seeing a car drive down the street)
integrative function
one of the functions of the nervous system, interpretation of the information (where the car is going, how fast)
motor function
one of the functions of the nervous system, motor nerves convey information from the CNS to the muscles & glands (tells us to get out of the way of the car)
neuroglia
most abundant of the nerve cells, called the nerve glue
neuroglia
support, protect & nourish the neurons
neuroglia
DO NOT conduct nerve impulses, they are unable to undergo mitosis
neurons
most important cell of the nervous system regarding transmission of nerve impulses
neurons
vary in size & shape, CAN NOT undergo mitosis and CAN NOT regenerate or be repaired when damaged
dendrites
tree like structures that receive information from other neurons
dendrites
transmit information to the cell body, can be thousands on one neuron
cell body
contains the nucleus, essential for the life of the cell
axon
transmits information away from the cell body
axon
at the end of this are called axon terminals (they contain the neurotransmitters)
axon
neurotransmitters are chemicals that conduct the nerve impulse across the synapse
synapse
space between neurons
myelin sheath
layer of white, fatty material that protects the axon
myelin sheath
nerves covered in this are said to be myelinated
schwann cells
create the myelin in the PNS
oligodendrocytes
create the myelin in the CNS
Nodes of Ranvier
unmyelinated areas
sensory neurons
carry information from the periphery to the CNS
motor neurons
carry information from the CNS to the periphery
interneurons
located in the CNS, neurons that bridge the sensory & motor neurons
nerve impulse
electrical signal that conveys information down a neuron
polarization
the resting state of the neuron, the inside of the neuron is more negatively charged than the outside
polarization
no impulse can travel down the neuron in this state
depolarization
stimulation of the neuron causes the electrical state to change
depolarization
the inside of the neuron changes from negatively charged to positively charged
repolarization
the return of the neuron to its resting state
repolarization
neuron can not be stimulated again until it returns to it's resting state
permeability
ability of substances to move through a membrane
polarization
during the resting state K+ leaks out of the neuron, this loss of (+) ions results in an overall (-) charge inside the neuron & an overall (+) on the outside
depolarization
when stimulated it allows Na+ ions to enter into the neuron, results in an overall (+) charge inside the neuron & overall (-) charge outside
repolarization
returns to it's resting state, stops the diffusion of Na+ in & allows K+ ions to leave, overall (-) inside and (+) outside
synapse
junction between neurons that allows nerve impulse to travel from neuron to neuron
synaptic cleft
the actual space between the neurons
axon terminal
vesicles that contain neurotransmitters
neurotransmitters
chemical substances that allow for transmission of signal from one neuron to another
brain
requires 20% of body's oxygen, glucose is the primary energy source
brain
divided into 4 areas (cerebrum, diencephalon, brainstem, cerebellum)
cerebrum
largest part of the brain, divided into left & right hemispheres
corpus callosum
connects the right & left hemispheres of the cerebrum, allows the two hemispheres to communicate with each other
cerebral cortex
thin layer of gray matter that forms the outer part of the cerebrum
gyri
elevations in the cerebrum
sulci
grooves in the cerebrum
cerebrum
functions include motor, intellectual, vision, hearing, smell, taste and memory
diencephalon
located beneath the cerebrum & above the brain stem
diencephalon
contains the thalmus and hypothalmus
thalmus
sorts out sensory information
hypothalmus
regulates many process such as body temp, water balance and metabolism
brain stem
connects the spinal cord to the rest of the brain
brain stem
contains the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata
midbrain
relays sensory & motor information
pons
transmits information to all of the other parts of the brain, plays a role in breathing rate & rhythm
medulla oblongata
relays information and helps control heart rate, blood pressure and respiration
cerebellum
involved in the coordination of voluntary muscle activity (skeletal muscles)
bone
protects organs such as the brain, spinal cord, lungs, etc
cranium
brain in encased in this
vertebral column
spinal cord is encased in this
meninges
3 layers of connective tissue that surround the skull & spinal cord
dura mater
tough, outer most layer, lines the inside of the skull
arachnoid
middle of the 3 layers, web like nature allows CSF to flow through it, bathing the brain
pia mater
inner most layer, very thin, contains the blood vessels that supply the brain
subarachnoid space
space between the arachnoid and pia mater, CSF flows and cushions the brain and spinal cord
cerebrospinal fluid
protects the brain and spinal cord from shock, plays a role in homeostasis & metabolism of the CNS
blood brain barrier
semi-permeable membrane that determines what goes in and out of the CNS
blood brain barrier
keeps many toxic substances out