SPEA V272 Exam 1
Terms in this set (39)
what is the class's working definition of terrorism?
there is no where in international law that has ever actually defined terrorism. Our working definition is an act of violence that deliberately targets noncombatants with a social or political motive and a goal of creating fear in a wider audience and bringing about policy change
Where did the word terrorism originate and how did it develop?
terrorism originated during the French revolution and described the actions of the government. In the 19th century the French applied it to Guerrillas in Spain and it developed into a label for anarchists and nationalists.
What are some movements that used terrorism in the late 19th and 20th centuries?
After WW2, terrorism appeared in anti-colonialism movements, political extremism, and religion.
Guerillas and the Napolean Wars
Radical Democrats, Nationalists, Anarchists
Discuss the debates about how terrorism is changing in reference to Scheuer, Sageman, and Kaplan
Scheuer -- says that terrorism has changed bc now it is non-western. He says that the terrorism experts now are looking through an outdated lens bc the Jihadists now are not trying to build a new state but instead are based on religion
Sageman -- argues that terrorism has not changed and it does not need to be looked at through a different lens. Most terrorism is home grown and local like it always has been. The only change that terrorism has seen is the internet because these individuals can find validation in their extremist views instantly.
Kaplan -- says there is no "new terrorism", that terrorism is still just a tactic of desperation of the weak in defiance of the strong. Terrorism IS a tactic.
How is terrorism different from 1) acts of war & 2) ordinary crime
1) Acts of War -- try to protect civilians lives, has a military objective, the risk is proportional to value of target
2) terrorism has a political or social motive.
so family or workplace conflicts, financial gain, or mental illness CANNOT be terrorism.
Possible causes of terrorism
"wicked problems" -- a problem that is hard to define and solve.
individual -- when a relatively weak group feels that its existence is threatened by a superior and that superior is morally depraved
group -- political, economic, social external factors against the group, isolation from other interps of reality, develop and think alike. they believe in the leaders, and a lack of structured decision making promises. they believe violent action will lead to political change
societal --rigid, literalist interps of religion.
What does NOT cause terrorism?
statistical studies have shown poverty and low education levels are not proven to be connected to terrorism levels. studies have actually shown that they are often wealthier and more educated than normal
also not necessarily mental illness
Similarities and Diffs between terrorist orgs and normal orgs?
Terrorist organizations face the same challenges as normal orgs like:
delegating tasks (control and agency probs)
preventing financial corruption
they need a structure
THE DIFFERENCE -- The Terrorist's Dilemma
They need secrecy to stay hidden from gov't but the publicity to create terror and recruit supporters
why do they delegate activities?
to maximize efficiency, for the most information from different people
Structures of terrorist groups
hierarchy -- efficient, preferred if they know they wont get caught. people will do what you want at the right time, more possibilities of getting caught and destroying the whole organizations
cells w out hierarchy --
leaderless resistance -- grows by social media, highly secure, little risk of getting caught, scale of attacks are smaller, lack of leadership controls
How can terrorist groups raise money? How to keep it secret?
charities, legitimate businesses, wealthy founder, gov't, drug trafficking, etc. They can smuggle sugar and keep the tax.
What are the 3 terrorists goals?
1. to get their cause on the agenda of the target society
2. create pressure on target gov'ts to change policy
3. build popular support in the community they claim to rep
News Triage & News Frame
what stories take priority
how they are portraying the story
Terrorism and New Media
internet allows direct communication from terror groups
- social media explodes
-terrorists can now completely control the message
Burke: live streaming changes the game bc terrorists don't even have to worry about sending out propaganda, the victims will record and post
why is suicide bombing an attractive tactic for terrorists?
- cost effective and easy
- adding a human delivery system makes it more lethal, no escape plan -- can control when and where easily
how likely are WMD's? what are the limits, etc?
if they are not motivated by apocalyptic motives then not likely. they were developed by GOV'TS. you have to get vast knowledge, experts, complex areas for chemical, nuclear, etc.
What was the main point of Neumann's article "Don't Follow The Money"?
Neumann says that chasing the money in terrorism is like trying to find a needle in a haystack. Also that many attacks do not take that much money and terrorist organizations as a whole rarely have close to a million dollars. He says that they should take a broader approach that includes diplomatic, military, and law enforcement options.
Explain why a group would decide that terrorism is a rational political strategy?
Groups think terrorism is a rational strategy when they are a small group fighting a bigger power that isn't allowed to participate and cant bring about political change...if no nonviolent way is possible they attack civilians bc the gov't needs civilian support and they think it will pressure civils to pressure gov't. & the gov't is too well defended
what is the main point of the article by Friedman in which he summarizes Pape's views on suicide bombing?
- Isis terror groups have been lashing out bc they were being cornered by the US military.
- He says that Pape says the suicide terrorists are doing it in retaliation to military attacks on their homeland.
- They are trying to change a losing game, upping their antics and proving themselves to cause
- Terrorist groups choose suicide attacks because of two reasons: to convince the opposing power to pull back in order to save as many lives as possible and as a way of leveling the playing field in terms of weapons and security.
Main points of Weiss article on nuclear terrorism?
- does not believe that nuclear terrorism is a likely threat that needs to be feared
- evidence that ISIS or other groups are planning is nonexistent
- it would take too much resources and time to follow through
- fearing these attacks takes importance away from other likely attacks
Compare Tosini and Pape's views of suicide bombing
Pape -- not possible to put a single profile to a suicide bomber; 3 elements --ethnic group resists an outside power w a democratic gov't and a difference in religion
Tosini -- doesn't believe in those elements. social structure and culture of the groups they are apart of ( the ppl they are around )
who were the sicarii?
one of the earliest forms of group assassination (or terrorism?) Jewish people way long ago that wanted to expel Roman Jews ??
what was the people's will?
violent socialist revolution in Russia
- a campaign of revolutionary terrorism in 1870 that clashed with conservative elements
What did anarchists believe and why did they turn to violence?
Russian anarchists believed that Russian problems could be settled through revolution.
- they believed that it was necessary to terrorize the conservatives into submission
What motivated the use of terrorism in Ireland early 20th centur? How did governing forces respond?
- a matter of divisions between Unionists (ppl who wanted to stay apart of the UK of GB and Ireland) and the Republicans (ones who wanted independence)
- the IRB started waging violent campaigns as nationalism grew
- the british backed police force (RIC) attempted to bring peace
what is selective terrorism and how was it used in Ireland
- to be effective, terrorism had to selectively & ruthlessly target security forces & their symbol of authority
- Michael Collins launched a new form of the IRA by gathering intelligence & learning internal workings of the british police force then him and his men abushed, bombed, & killed police officers
what is meant by radicalization?
involves processes that change a person's socially acceptable behavior into terrorismw
what is groupthink?
a mode of problem solving based on consensus. when members of a group value agreement about the way a problem will be solved rather than solving the problem. when the members agree on a course of action they follow it even when there is no chance of success
what did Atram mean by ordinariness of terror & give an example
When people are around such terror it becomes second nature and they become callous to it and more likely to fall to it. like the Stanford Prison Experiment
Who were the Weather Underground and how do they illustrate groupthink?
they were a left wing domestic terrorist group in the 1960s
- they broke away from the Students for a Democratic Society & they believed violence was necessary to overthrow the US gov't
- they came from similar backgrounds, thought alike and acted alike
- their plan was illogical but they did it anyway
What is "leaderless resistance" and where did it originate?
- created by American right wing terrorist Louis Beam (white nationalist)
- not an organized terror group, sharing ideologies and people seeing them and doing their own attacks
cells: small group of individuals
Chains: couriers pass information without cells knowing identity or location of others
hubs: central leader controls without cells knowing identity or location of others
wheel: hubs share information with each other
umbrella: central organization provides services to associated cells
a system of exchanging money based on trust relationships btwn money dealers. a chit is exchanged btwn two hawaladars & it is as valuable as cash bc of the trust btwn 2 parties.
- originated in china, now mostly in Pakistan & India
what is the most common terror tactic &why?
bombs bc they are easy to make w readily available materials
- pressure cookers @ boston marathon
- fertilizer bombs in Oklahoma City Federal Building
where did suicide bombing originate? What do the Tamil Tigers tell us about suicide bombing?
- Tamil Tigers show us that suicide bombings are not always religious, can be secular
What is Aum Shinrikyo
- Japanese cult seeking to save the world by destroying it
- they did a nerve gas attack killing 12 people, costed millions, employed scientists, had own mine...and still didn't work
what are force multipliers
a method of increasing striking power without increasing the number of combat troops in a military unit.
- Terrorists have 4
1.transitional support - increases ability of groups to move & hide across a nation
2. Technology - allows a small group to launch a deadly attack
3. media coverage - can make a minor group politically important
4. Religion - transcends boundaries increasing violence and decreasing negotiation
"Dirty bomb." These weapons use conventional explosives surrounded by radioactive material.
2 types of nuclear devices
1. HEU -- can be used w out a nuclear state; two pieces of material in a tube and forcing them to collide to cause a nuclear reaction
2. Plutonium -- condensing metal till it causes a reaction (more effective)