# HNI 469 Chapter 7 & 8

Descriptive studies,
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including prevalence and correlation studies, customarily describe the amount and distribution of disease within a population. This approach relies primarily on collection of existing data and answers the following questions:
• Who is affected (person)?
• Where is the disease distributed in the human population (place)?
• When is the disease present (time)?
• What is the overall effect of the disease (population)?
use observational methodology that begin to answer questions about cause-and- effect relationships between a potential risk factor and a specific health phenomenon or disease condition. Hypotheses, which are statements of possible relationships, are used to predict the causal association among the variables. Being able to predict risk thus points to factors that, if changed, may prevent the disease from occurring or reduce its risk. The hypotheses are tested through studies using cohort or case- control designs, and these studies may be retrospective or prospective.
If the evidence suggests that some relationships are appropriate for further study to confirm cause and effect a study may be conducted.
-always begin with carefully designed questions, hypotheses, and research protocols that specify the criteria for selection of the people (subjects) to be studied, the methods for random assignment of subjects to the experimental and control groups, the treatment procedure, the follow-up of subjects, and the details of the data analyses.
-the researcher always manipulates variables, such as a nursing intervention or a health-teaching approach, in the experimental and control groups.
-encompasses the stages of susceptibility and adaptation.
-Although factors are present that increase risk during the period of pre- pathogenesis, no disease exists.
-For example, obesity in combination with a sedentary lifestyle and smoking increases a person's chances for developing coronary heart disease. - -Because some risk factors can be altered, understanding the natural history of a disease is important.
-Awareness of the presence of risk allows the nurse to initiate preventive measures against the disease or limit its development.