Only $35.99/year

Terms in this set (106)

Position the client to maximize ventilation (high-Fowler's)
Encourage effective coughing, or suction to remove secretions
Encourage deep breathing and use of an incentive spirometer
Administer breathing treatments and medications
Administer oxygen as prescribed
Monitor for skin breakdown around the nose and mouth from the oxygen device
Promote adequate nutrition
-Increased work of breathing increases caloric demands
-Proper nutrition aids in the prevention of infection
-Encourage fluids to promote adequate hydration
-Dyspnea decreases energy available for eating, so soft, high-calorie foods should be encouraged
Monitor weight and note any changes
Instruct the patient to practice breathing techniques to control dyspneic episodes
-For diaphragmatic (abdominal) breathing, instruct the client to: take breaths deep from the diaphragm; lie on back with knees bent; rest a hand over the abdomen to create resistance; if the client's hand rises and lowers upon inhalation and exhalation, the breathing is being performed correctly
-For pursed-lip breathing, instruct the client to: form the mouth as if preparing to whistle; take a breath in through the nose and out through the lips/mouth; not puff the cheeks; take breaths deep and slow
Clients who have COPD can need 2-4L/min of oxygen via nasal cannula or up to 40% via Venturi mask
-Clients who have chronically increased PaCO2 levels usually require 1 to 2 L/min of oxygen via nasal cannula
-In COPD, low arterial levels of oxygen serve as the primary drive for breathing
-Positive expiratory pressure device: assists client to remove airway secretions; client inhales deeply and exhales through device; while exhaling, a ball inside the device moves, causing a vibration that results in loosening secretions
-Exercise conditioning: includes improving pulmonary status by strengthening the condition of the lungs by exercise; the client walks daily at a self-paced rate until symptoms of dyspnea occur allowing rest periods and then resuming walking; the client walks 20 min daily 2-3 times weekly; determine the client's physical limitations, and structure activity to include periods of rest; provide rest periods for older adult clients who have dyspnea. Design the room and walkways with opportunities for relaxation
Provide support to the client and family. Talk about disease and lifestyle changes, including home care services such as portable oxygen
Encourage verbalization of feelings
Increase fluid intake. Encourage client to drink 2-3L/day to liquefy mucus.