48 terms

Biology STAAR Animal Systems

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Circulatory system
system responsible for transporting materials such as oxygen, digested foods, wastes, and hormones throughout the body
Hemoglobin
iron-containing oxygen-transport protein in the red blood cells of many animals
Digestive system
system that breaks down foods (biomolecules) and absorb nutrients so that an organism can use them
Peristalsis
involuntary contraction of smooth muscles to propel contents through the digestive tract
Villi
finger-like projections along the wall of the small intestine that aid in the absorbtion of nutrients into the blood
Endocrine system
system associated with hormones, glands, and regulation
Gland
a body part that makes and releases things like hormones (into blood), breast milk, saliva, sweat, etc.
Metabolism
set of life-sustaining chemical reactions in cells for growth and reproduction, maintainence of structures, and response to environments
Excretory system
organism is able to filter the blood to rid itself of liquid wastes, excess water, and poisons through the organs of this system
Nephron
the basic structural and functional unit of the kidney that helps filter the blood
Immune system
system that destroys harmful microbes that invade an organism and can possibly kill it
White blood cell
cells of the immune system involved in defending the body against both infectious disease and foreign materials; also known as leukocytes (leuko- meaning "white" and -cytes - meaning "cells")
Immune response
how your body recognizes and defends itself against bacteria, viruses, and substances that appear foreign and harmful to the body
Active immunity
type of immunity, or resistance, developed in an organism in response to an exposure to an antigen (by pathogen or vaccine)
Passive immunity
type of immunity acquired by the transfer of antibody from one individual to another, such as from mother to offspring (ex. breast feeding)
Lymph system
This system is part of the circulatory system. It produces lymphocytes to fight infection that may be found in the blood stream. It also collects, filters (lymph nodes), and transports fluids from around the tissues back to the veins of the circulatory system.
Lymph
the fluid that circulates throughout the lymphatic system; it returns protein and excess interstitial fluid to the blood
Lymph nodes
an oval-shaped organ distributed widely throughout the body including the armpit and stomach linked with lymph vessels; act as filters or traps for foreign particles
Integumentary system
This system protects the body from harmful organisms that try to enter it. The system also prevents the organism from drying out.
Muscular system
Without this system, an organism would not be able to move. The stomach and intestines depend on this system to move materials through them.
Nervous system
Messages can be sent all over the body of an organism through this system. It directs the behavior and processes such as digestion, circulation, movement, etc.
Neuron
an electrically excitable cell that processes and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals; also known as a nerve cell
Reproductive system
This system develops specialized cells that enable organisms to produce offspring.
Hormones
chemical released by a cell, a gland, or an organ in one part of the body that sends out messages that affect cells in other parts of the organism (For example: estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone in reproduction)
Respiratory system
If an organism did not have this system, gases could not be exchanged between the atmosphere and the blood of an organism.
Alveoli
tiny air sacs at the end of a bronchiole in the lungs that provides surface area for gas exchange to occur with the blood
Skeletal system
This system forms a framework for muscles to attach to, and it serves to protect organs inside the organism. It is found on the outside of some organisms and the inside of others. It also plays a role in the immune system.
Bone marrow
the flexible tissue found in the interior of bones; in humans, red blood cells are produced in the heads of long bones; also a key component of the lymphatic system, producing the lymphocytes that support the body's immune system
Atom
is the smallest representative unit of an element (ex. oxygen)
Molecule
two or more atoms bonded together (ex. RNA molecule)
Cell
the smallest unit capable of life, made of multiple molecules (Animal example: epithelial cell)
Tissue
a group of cells working together to perform a particular function (Animal example: epithelial tissue layer)
Epithelial tissue
one of the four basic types of animal tissue; located on the very outside of an organ or organism (i.e. skin) or found lining cavities in hollow organs (i.e. stomach lining); it always has a free surface (no contact with another cell).
Connective tissue
one of the four basic types of animal tissue; supports, connects, or separates different types of tissues and organs of the body (for example: blood, tendons, and fat tissue)
Muscle tissue
one of the four basic types of animal tissue; there are 3 types: skeletal, smooth, & cardiac
Nerve tissue
one of the four basic types of animal tissue; the main component of the nervous system - the brain, spinal cord, and nerves-which regulates and controls body functions
Organ
a group of tissues working together to perform a particular function (Animal example: stomach)
Organ System
a group of organs working together to perform a particular function (Animal example: digestive system)
Feedback mechanism
a loop system in which the system responds to perturbation either in the same direction (positive feedback) or in the opposite direction (negative feedback)
Negative feedback loop
The process in which a stimulus produces a response that opposes the original stimulus. (Examples are: body temperature, regulation of sugar in the blood) Also known as feedback inhibition.
Insulin
hormone released by the pancreas when blood sugar (glucose) levels get too high; it causes cells in the liver, skeletal muscles, and fat tissue to absorb glucose, or sugar, from the blood to stabilize blood sugar levels (effect opposite of glucagon)
Glucagon
hormone released by the pancreas when blood sugar (glucose) levels fall too low; it causes the liver to release glucose, or sugar, into the blood to stabilize blood sugar levels (effect opposite of insulin)
Diabetes
a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced
Positive feedback loop
= plus + = a BIGGER + (ex. child birth, lactation, menstration, & blood clotting)
Antibiotics
used for treatment or prevention of bacterial infection (NOT for treatment of viral infections)
Antibodies
"the good guy" - protein produced by the immune system to identify and neutralize/kill harmful antigens such as bacteria and viruses
Antigen
"the bad guy" - substance, such as bacteria or virus, that triggers the production of antibodies
Vaccine
a preparation of weakened or killed pathogens that improves immunity to a particular disease or illness