Conservapedia: American History 2013 - Final SG Part 3

Pages 5-6
How the Other Half Lives
1890: book by Jacob Riis exposed overcrowdedness of cities, how it caused gangs, murders
Adkins v. Children's Hospital
1923: Sup. Ct. invalidates limit on hours for women workers as unconstitutional
Wright brothers flight
1903: first airplane flight was at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, 5 yrs before Ford's Model T
Niagara Movement/NAACP
1905: W.E.B. Du Bois demands full citizenship rights for African Americans; NAACP founded in 1910
DuBois compared to Booker Washington
both wanted to advance African Americans. DuBois was more aggressive/militant than Booker Washington
"Big" Bill Haywood
1905: miner & violent unionist who founded Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), eventually fled to USSR
Henry Ford
assembly line and interchang. parts sped production, reduced costs, doubled output; Ford raised workers' wages
United Negro Imprvmt Ass'n
Marcus Garvey founded group, disliked moderates like NAACP, wanted black pride & return to Africa
18th Amendment
1919: Prohibition: bans manufacture, sale, importation, exportation of alcohol; but organized crime profited from this
Volstead Act
1919: federal law to enforce Prohibition but not enough federal agents to enforce fully
Great American authors wrote ...
tragedies about (__): F. Scott Fitzgerald (wealth); Sinclair Lewis (business & religion); Ernest Hemingway (war)
Tin Pan Alley
1920s: growing American music in area of NYC, incl. jazz
William Faulkner
1929-32: author of "Sound & Fury", "As I Lay Dying", "Sanctuary", "Light in August"; described South as poor, racist
Eugene O'Neill
playwright, 2nd Am. to win Nobel Prize for Lit. (1936); psychological realism in plays
Harlem Renaissance
center of black culture, intellectualism flourished, called New Negro Movement
Sacco and Vanzetti
1920: committed murder during a bank robbery; tried as Italian anarchists, executed in 1927 despite political support
radio, television
1920 was first commercial radio broadcast; 1927 was first highly successful talking movie ("The Jazz Singer")
Warren G. Harding
Repub. Pres. 1921-23, conservative but plagued with scandals such as Teapot Dome Scandal
Federal Highway Act
1921: provides $75M to states in matching funds for state roads
Washington Naval Conference
1921-22: limited arms in navies worldwide, delayed war in Pacific, and temporarily protect China against Japan
Immigration 1890-1917
mostly from central and southern Europe, also many from Eastern Europe; opposition to this increased
Emergency Quota Act
1921: limited immigrants to 3%/yr of nationality living in US in 1910, favoring older Anglo-Saxon& N Europe
Fordney McCumber Act
1922: increased tariffs to very high levels, creating hardship for Europe after WW I
Calvin Coolidge
Repub. Pres. 1923-28: did little but embraced laissez-faire, cleaned up corruption, did not run again
Coolidge's view on strikes
When Mass. governor: "There is no right to strike against the public safety by anybody, anywhere, anytime."
National Origins Act
1924: restricted immigrants from southern and central Europe and Asia, to stop anarchists and Bolsheviks
Scopes "Monkey" Trial
1925: Bryan prosecutes Scopes in Tenn. for teaching evolution, Clarence Darrow defends; Bryan wins
Charles Lindbergh
1927: first solo flight NYC to Paris in "Spirit of St. Louis"; brings in a new era of air travel
Great Mississippi Flood
1927: massive river flood displaced 700,000 persons; African Americans migrated from South to northern cities
Kellogg-Briand Pact (or Treaty)
1928: outlawed war; ineffective because it had no way to be enforced
Herbert Hoover
Repub. Pres. 1928-32: wanted bus. cooperation, opposed union & trust busting, critical of Europe, cut taxes. Sought voluntary wage and price controls to end Depression, opposed new federal programs
Stock market crash
Oct. 1929, but rallied afterwards; tariffs are considered a greater cause of Depression than stock market crash
Hawley-Smoot Tariff
1930: increased tariffs, setting off worldwide round of tariff increases in 1931, worsening Depression
Causes of Depression
tariffs, gold standard, concentration of wealth, unregulation speculation on markets
Reconstruction Finance Corp
1932: created a federal agency to lend money to banks, later lent money to businesses also
Bonus March
1932: poor WWI soldiers march on DC for bonus, riots broke out
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
Dem. Pres. 1932-45: started massive federal works and relief programs
New Deal
Numerous new laws (legislation) to build projects and give jobs to people
"Hundred Days"
1933: FDR's initial programs, incl. nationwide banking holiday, ended Gold Std (thereby causing inflation)
Emergency Banking Act
1933: allowed inspection of bank records; made "bank holiday", infuse money into bank with Reconstr. Finan. Corp.
Civilian Conservation Corps
1933: provided jobs to men between 17 and 25 for conservation of natural resources
Agricultural Adjustment Act
1933: tried to raise prices and limit farm production by paying farmers not to farm land; declared unconstitutional
Federal Emergency Relief Act
1933: provided work on projects such as building roads, airports, schools, playgrounds, parks
Tennessee Valley Act
1933: bought, built & operated dams, generated & sold electric power, flood contr., w/drew bad land from farming. Set up Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) and used its power rates to regulate private rates (controversial)
Farm-Credit Act
1933: provided funding for farm mortgages
Glass-Steagall Banking Act
1933: estab. Federal Deposit Insurance Corp. (FDIC) to insure deposits in banks, thereby stabilizing system
National Industrial Recovery Act
1933: made public works administration., defined fair business practices, held unconstitut. in Schecter Poultry v. U.S.
21st Amendment
1933: repeals Prohibition, gives power to States to regulate or prohibit alcohol
Good Neighbor Policy
1933: FDR policy of respect for Latin America, unlike Teddy Roosevelt's "Big Stick" and Taft's "Dollar Diplomacy"
Federal Housing Authority
1934: provided low-cost, long-term loans for modernizing old bldgs and building new ones
Gold Reserve Act
1934: nationalized gold, U.S. treasury took title to all gold, stored most at Ft. Knox, KY
Securities and Exchange Act
1934: establishes Securities Exchange Commission to regulate stock exchanges
Works Progress Administration
employed 8.5 million persons between 1935 and 1943 building public works
National Housing Act
1934: set up the Federal Housing Authority (FHA). This agency encouraged banks, building and loan associations, etc. to make loans for building homes, small business establishments, and farm buildings.
Schecter Poultry v. U.S.
1935: S. Ct. declares Nat'l Industrial Recovery Act unconstitutional because it delegated too much power to agency
Wagner Act
1935: gives unions rights, promotes their growth; prohibit employer interference, estab. Nat'l Labor Relations Board
Social Security Act
1935: provided old age insurance from tax on wages and tax on employers; biggest federal program now
Congress of Indust. Organ. (CIO)
1935: labor group formed by fiery John Lewis and garment trade unions, later included auto and steelworkers
Fair Labor Standards Act
1938: abolished child labor and set national minimum wage ($.40 per hour) and the 40 hr week
Trade Agreements Act
1934: amended the Tariff Act of 1930 (Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act) to give authority to negotiate mutual tariff reductions
Neutrality Act
1935: forbids sale of arms to all belligerents if Pres. says a state of war exists; designed to keep us at peace
Pennsylvania Turnpike
1940: the first multi-laned superhighway was built, with support from the federal government; heavily used even now
Selective Training & Service Act
1940: first adoption of peacetime conscription (draft)
Four Freedoms
1941: FDR in annual speech to Cong urges freedom of speech, worship, from want, from fear
Lend-Lease Act
1941: FDR's first step to save Britain & Allies in WWII by lending them materials, ending neutrality
Atlantic Charter
July 1941: FDR and Churchill declare purpose to WWII, based on world peace, like 14 points in WWI
German submarines in WWII that sunk ships
Pearl Harbor
Dec. 7, 1941: Japan attacks naval base in Hawaii, sinks our fleet
June 6, 1944 Allies finally invade mainland Europe at Normandy, France to recapture mainland
Casablanca Conference
Jan. 14-24, 1943, WW II mtg of U.S. & Britain, agree to fight until other side unconditionally surrenders
1941-45: systematic, racist and brutal murder by German leaders of six million Jews during WW II