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AP Gov. 15 court cases to know
Terms in this set (16)
McCulloch v. Maryland
Maryland was trying to tax the national bank and Supreme Court ruled that federal law was stronger than the state law (federalism)
United States v. Lopez
The Commerce Clause of the Constitution does not give Congress the power to prohibit mere possession of a gun near a school, because gun possession by itself is not an economic activity that affects interstate commerce even indirectly. (federalism)
Engel v. Vitale
The Supreme Court decision holding that state officials violated the First Amendment (freedom of religion) when they wrote a prayer to be recited by New York's schoolchildren. (prayer in school)
Wisconsin v. Yoder
Amish people refused to send their children to school past the 8th grade when the state required public schooling for all children until age16. Result: This law is in conflict with the Free Exercise clause. The statute is in direct conflict with Amish beliefs. The Amish may teach themselves. (violated 1st amendment of freedom of religion)
Tinker v. Des Moines
U.S. Supreme Court case that upheld a student's First Amendment right to engage in symbolic speech in school. Students were wearing armbands and fasting due to the truce in the Vietnam war. Students were sent home till after the holidays and the parents bought it to the Supreme Court for the school district violating the kids first amendment right of speech. This case was in favor of the school board.
New York Times v. US
Supreme Court case protecting the freedom of the press by allowing the New York Times to publish the "Pentagon Papers" despite the Justice Department's order to restrict it
Schenck v. US
conviction of a socialist who had urged young men to resist the draft during WW1. Justice Holmes declared that gov't can limit speech if the speech provokes a "clear and present danger" of substantive evils.
Gideon v. Wainwright
A person who cannot afford an attorney may have one appointed by the government (protecting individual rights)
Roe v. Wade
legalized abortion on the basis of a woman's right to privacy (14th amendment)
McDonald v. Chicago
The Court held that the right of an individual to "keep and bear arms" protected by the 2nd Amendment is incorporated by the Due Process Clause of the 14th Amendment and applies to the states (10th amendment). (protecting individual rights)
Brown v. Board of Education
The Supreme Court overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools desegregated. (14th amendment)
Plessy v. Ferguson
Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal (violated 14th amendment)
Citizens United v. FEC
the conservative non-profit organization Citizens United wanted to air a film critical of Hillary Clinton and to advertise the film during television broadcasts, which was a violation of the 2002 Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act, commonly known as the McCain-Feingold Act or "BCRA" (pronounced "bik-ruh").
Baker v. Carr
haven't changed district lines in 60 years
Shaw v. Reno
NO racial gerrymandering; race cannot be the sole or predominant factor in redrawing legislative boundaries; majority-minority districts.
Marbury v. Madison
This case establishes the Supreme Court's power of Judicial Review
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