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rhine river

supreme european river, begins in the alps emptys in the north sea


stretches from the the Atlantic ovean in the west to the ural mountains in the east, from the artic ocean in the north to the mediterranean sea


small compared to other countrys

northwest highlands

acient eroded rugged hills and low mountains ireland, england,and scandinavia

central uplands

hills and small plateau's and small mountains

alpine mountain system

europes major mountain range 14000 ft above sea level

northearn european plain

stetches to the atlantic coast to the eural mountains, some of the most fertile farmland in the world


narrow deep inlets of the sea between high, rocky cliffs, they are along norways coast.

tectonic activity

is occuring today because a subduction zone is located off the coast of southern italy. Greece creates powerful earthquakes and volcanes (alps)


called the land of fire and ice because their are volcanoes and glaciers side by side


almost surrounded by water in the south its connected to the black sea by the narrow bosporus. Geographers consider this to be a boundry between europe and asia. The north baltic, and artic ocean also surround europe,north baltic,artic ocean,norm sea,baltic sea,north atlantic ocean

northwest highland,central uplands,alpine mountain system, northern european plain

four major land form regoins


interior towns and cities have accesability to the sea through canals anf rivers

rhine, danube

europes most important river. _____ rises in the swiss alps, _______ begins in the uplands of southern germany and empties into the black sea

marine west coast, medditeraian, humid continetal

three major climate types in europe

marine west coast

cloudy mild summers and cool rainy winters, strong ocean influence


dry sunny, warm summers and mild wet winters

humid continetal

distinct seasons, long cold winters and short warm summers.

prevaling westerly winds

carry warm moist air across much of the north western europe which brings mild temperatures and rain

4 major biomes

temperate forest, mediterranean scrub forest, borreal forest, and tundra

temperate forest

temperate climates

mediterranean scrub forest

dry areas

borreal forest

northearn europe


iceland, adn scandinavia

European plain

best european farming soil


fine-grained wind blown soil that is fetile


crop fields among the highest in the world because efficent methods and tecnology has made it the highest fertilizers, crop rotation

Eastern Europe

under the control of communist rule after world warII


important part of the european economy

no place in europe

is more than 300 miles from the sea


main oil and natural gas deposits lie beneath the north sea


soft brown coal


land taken back from the sea

to create it the dutch built earthen walls called dikes along the shoreline. the used the drainaged land for farming.



spain, portugal








norway, sweden

eastern shore of battle


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