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Study Guide test 1 for art history

Terms in this set (64)

3200-3000 BCE, 5,000 years old, made out of mud bricks. Within Uruk, the greatest monument was the Anu Ziggurat on which the White Temple was built. Dating to the late 4th millennium B.C.E. (the Late Uruk Period, or Uruk III) and dedicated to the sky god Anu, this temple would have towered well above (approximately 40 feet) the flat plain of Uruk, and been visible from a great distance. The sides of the ziggurat were very broad and sloping but broken up by recessed stripes or bands from top to bottom (see digital reconstruction, above), which would have made a stunning pattern in morning or afternoon sunlight. The only way up to the top of the ziggurat was via a steep stairway that led to a ramp that wrapped around the north end of the Ziggurat and brought one to the temple entrance. The flat top of the ziggurat was coated with bitumen (asphalt—a tar or pitch-like material similar to what is used for road paving) and overlaid with brick, for a firm and waterproof foundation for the White temple. The temple gets its name for the fact that it was entirely white washed inside and out, which would have given it a dazzling brightness in strong sunlight. By 3200 BC, Uruk was one the largest cities in the world during its time, with an estimated population of over 40,000 people. Along with a developed agriculture system, the city thrived, and is considered to be the first true city in the world. It is believed that the ziggurats of Uruk were created to imitate mountains so that their gods could dwell in them, and be closer to their city. Because ziggurats were part of the temple complexes, it is believed that they were connected with religious rites; religion was a very important part of the ancient Mesopotamian culture.

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