54 terms

AP Human Geo - Unit 2: Population and Migration

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Natural Increase Rate (NIR)
The percentage growth of a population in a year, computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate.
Doubling Time
The number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase.
Life Expectancy
The average number of years an individual can be expected to live, given current social, economic, and medical conditions. Life expectancy at birth is the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live.
Crude Death Rate (CDR)
The total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.
Crude Birth Rate (CBR)
The total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.
Total Fertility Rate (TFR)
The average number of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years.
Maternal Mortality Rate
The annual number of female deaths per 100,000 live births from any cause related to or aggravated by pregnancy or its management (excluding accidental or incidental causes).
Infant Mortality Rate (IMR)
The total number of deaths in a year among infants under 1 year old for every 1,000 live births in a society.
Dependency Ratio
The number of people under age 15 and over age 64 compared to the number of people active in the labor force.
Elderly Support Ratio
The number of working-age people (ages 15 to 64) divided by the number of persons 65 and older.
Overpopulation
A situation in which the number of people in the area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living.
Census
A complete enumeration of a population.
Agricultural Density
The ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of arable land. It can help indicate the level of development.
Arithmetic Density
The total number of people divided by the total land area. It can help indicate the level of crowdedness.
Physiological Density
The number of people per unit of area of arable land. It can help indicate a country's carrying capacity.
Carrying Capacity
Largest number of individuals of a population that a environment can support.
Demographic Transition Model
The process of change in a society's population from a condition of high crude birth and death rates and low rate of natural increase to a condition of low crude birth and death rates, low rate of natural increase, and a higher total population.
Demography
The scientific study of population characteristics.
Epidemiologic Transition
The process of change in the distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition.
Epidemiology
The branch of medical science concerned with the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that are prevalent among a population at a special time and are produced by some special causes not generally present in the affected locality.
Industrial Revolution
A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods.
Medical Revolution
Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Improved medical practices have eliminated many of the traditional causes of death in poorer countries and enabled more people to live longer and healthier lives.
Pandemic
Disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population.
Population Pyramid
A bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex.
Sex Ratio
The number of males per 100 females in the population.
Zero Population Growth (ZPG)
A decline of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero.
Asylum Seeker
Someone who has migrated to another country in the hope of being recognized as a refugee.
Brain Drain
Large-scale emigration by talented people.
Chain Migration
migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there.
Circular Migration
The temporary movement of a migrant worker between home and host countries to seek employment.
Circulation
Short-term, repetitive, or cyclical movements that recur on a regular basis.
Counterurbanization
Net migration from urban to rural areas in more developed countries.
Desertification
Degradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actions like excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting.
Emigration
Migration from a location.
Floodplain
Permanent movement, compelled by cultural or environmental factors.
Guest Worker
A term once used for a worker who migrated to the developed countries of Northern and Western Europe, usually from Southern and Eastern Europe or from North Africa, in search of a higher-paying job.
Immigration
Migration to a new location.
Internal Migration
Permanent movement within a particular country.
Internally Displaced Person (IDP)
Someone who has been forced to migrate for similar political reasons as a refugee but has not migrated across an international border.
International Migration
Permanent movement from one country to another.
Interregional Migration
Permanent movement from one region of a country to another.
Intervening Obstacle
An environmental or cultural feature of the landscape that hinders migration.
Intraregional Migration
Permanent movement within one region of a country.
Migration
A form of relocation diffusion involving a permanent move to a new location.
Migration Transition
A change in the migration pattern in a society that results from industrialization, population growth, and other social and economic changes that also produce the demographic transition.
Mobility
All types of movement between locations.
Net Migration
The difference between the level of immigration and the level of emigration.
Pull Factor
A factor that induces people to move to a new location
Push Factor
A factor that induces people to move out of their present location.
Quota
In reference to migration, a law that places a maximum limit on the number of people who can immigrate to a country each year.
Refugee
Some who is forced to migrate from his or her home country and cannot return for fear of persecution because of his or her race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group, or political opinion.
Remittance
Transfer of money by workers to people in the country from which they emigrated.
Unauthorized Immigrant
A person who enters a country without proper documents to do so.
Voluntary Migration
Permanent movement undertaken by choice.