The process of adjustment to the dominant culture.
The process of giving up cultural traditions and adopting the social customs of the dominant culture of a place.
The frequent repetition of an act, to the extent that it becomes characteristic of the group of people performing the act.
Culture traditionally practiced by a small, homogeneous, rural group living in relative isolation from other groups.
A repetitive act performed by a particular individual.
Culture found in a large, heterogeneous society that shares certain habits despite differences in other personal characteristics.
A restriction on behavior imposed by social custom.
The contribution of a location's distinctive physical features to the way food tastes.
A language that results from the mixing of a colonizer's language with the indigenous language of the people being dominated.
Denglish = German + English Franglais = French + English Spanglish = Spanish + English
A language spoken in daily use with a literary tradition that is not widely distributed.
A regional variety of a language distinguished by vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation.
A dialect spoken by some African Americans.
Extinct Language (i.e. Dead Language)
An extinct language is a language that no longer has any speakers, or that is no longer in current use.
A language used in education, work, mass media, and government.
A boundary that separates regions in which different language usages predominate.
A language that is unrelated to any other languages and therefore not attached to any language family. (e.g. Japanese)
A system of communication through the use of speech, a collection of sounds understood by a group of people to have the same meaning.
A collection of languages related through a common ancestor that can be confirmed through archaeological evidence.
A collection of languages related to each other through a common ancestor long before recorded history.
A collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent pass and display relatively few differences in grammar and vocabulary.
A language mutually understood and commonly used in trade by people who have different native languages.
A language that is written as well as spoken.
A symbol that represents a word rather than a sound.
The language adopted for use by the government for the conduct of business and publication of documents.
A form of speech that adopts a simplified grammar and limited vocabulary of a lingua franca; used for communications among speakers of two different languages.
Received Pronunciation (RP)
The dialect of English associated with upper-class Britons living in London and now considered standard in the United Kingdom.
The form of a language used for official government business, education, and mass communications.
A subdivision of a dialect.
A language that is spoken in daily use but that lacks a literary tradition.
The belief that the existence of God can't be proven empirically.
The belief that objects, such as plants and stones, or natural events, like thunderstorms and earthquakes, have a discrete spirit and conscious life.
The belief that God does not exist
A religion that does not have a central authority but shares ideas and cooperates informally.
A large and fundamental division within a religion.
The class or distinct hereditary order into which a Hindu is assigned, according to religious law.
A local assembly of persons brought together for common religious worship.
A set of religious beliefs concerning the origin of the universe.
A division of a branch that unites a number of local congregations in a single legal and administrative body.
A religion with a relatively concentrated spatial distribution whose principles are likely to be based on the physical characteristics of the particular location in which its adherents are concentrated.
Literal interpretation and strict adherence to basic principles of a religion (or a religious branch, denomination, or sect).
During the middle Ages, a neighborhood in a city set up by law to be inhabited only by Jews; now used to denote a section of a city in which members of any minority group live because of social, legal, or economic pressure.
A religion in which a central authority exercises a high degree of control.
An individual who helps to diffuse a universalizing religion.
The doctrine or belief of the existence of only one God.
A journey to a place considered sacred for religious purposes.
The belief in or worship of more than one god.
An astronomical event that happens twice each year, when the tilt of Earth's axis is most inclined toward or away from the Sun, causing the Sun's apparent position in the sky to reach it most northernmost or southernmost extreme, and resulting in the shortest and longest days of the year.
Combining several religious traditions.
A religion that attempts to appeal to all people, not just those living in a particular location.
Laws (no longer in effect) in South Africa that physically separated different races into different geographic areas.
A process by which a state breaks down through conflicts among its ethnicities.
A small geographic area that cannot successfully be organized into stable countries because it is inhabited by many ethnicities with complex, long-standing antagonisms toward each other.
A process by which real estate agents convince white property owners to sell their houses at low prices because of fear that persons of color will soon move into the neighborhood.
An attitude that tends to unify people and enhance support for a state.
A purposeful policy designed by one ethnic or religious group to remove by violent and terror-inspiring means the civilian population of another ethnic or religious group from certain geographic areas.
A place with a high concentration of an ethnic group that is distinct from those in the surrounding area.
A suburban area with a cluster of a particular ethnic population.
Identity with a group of people who share the cultural traditions of a particular homeland or hearth.
The mass killing of a group of people in an attempt to eliminate the entire group from existence.
Loyalty and devotion to a particular nationality.
Identity with a group of people that share legal attachment and personal allegiance to a particular country.
Identity with a group of people who are perceived to share a physiological trait, such as skin color.
The belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that racial differences produce an inherent superiority of a particular race.
A person who subscribes to the beliefs of racism.
A person who works fields rented from a landowner and pays the rent and repays loans by turning over to the landowner a share of the crops.
Triangular Slave Trade
A practice, primarily during the eighteenth century, in which European ships transported slaves from Africa to Caribbean islands, molasses from the Caribbean to Europe, and trade goods from Europe to Africa.
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