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computers chapter 9
Terms in this set (63)
A program that downloads on your computer when a user installs a freeware program, game, or utility. Generally, adware enables sponsored advertisements to appear in a section of a browser window or as a pop-up ad.
Software specifically designed to detect viruses and protect a computer and files from harm.
Program that enables a hacker to take complete control of a computer without the legitimate user's knowledge or permission.
A copy of a computer file that can be used to replace the original if it's lost or damaged.
biometric authentication device
A device that uses some unique characteristic of human biology to identify authorized users.
A hacker who uses his or her knowledge to destroy information or for illegal gain.
A virus that replicates itself into the master boot record of a flash drive or hard drive.
A large group of software applications (called robots or bots) that run without user intervention on a large number of computers.
The application of computer systems and techniques to gather potential legal evidence; a law enforcement specialty used to fight high- tech crime.
A small text file that some websites automatically store on a client computer's hard drive when a user visits the site.
Any criminal action perpetrated primarily through the use of a computer.
An individual who uses computers, networks, and the Internet to perpetrate crime.
Doing anything with a computer that's unrelated to a job (such as playing video games) while one's supposed to be working. Also called cyberslacking.
When sensitive or confidential information is copied, transmitted, or viewed by an individual who is not authorized to handle the data.
A file that contains stored data.
denial-of-service (DoS) attack
An attack that occurs when legitimate users are denied access to a computer system because a hacker is repeatedly making requests of that computer system that tie up its resources and deny legitimate users access.
distributed denial of service (DDoS) attack
An automated attack that's launched from more than one zombie computer at the same time.
The use of malicious software to attack a computer by downloading harmful programs onto a computer, without the user's knowledge, while they are surfing a website.
A virus transmitted by e-mail that often uses the address book in the victim's e-mail system to distribute itself.
A malicious program that searches for common data files and compresses them into a file using a complex encryption key, thereby rendering the files unusable.
A software program or hardware device designed to prevent unauthorized access to computers or networks.
Data attached to a photograph that indicates the latitude and longitude where you were standing when you took the photo.
A cross between black and white—a hacker who will often illegally break into systems merely to flaunt his or her expertise to the administrator of the system he or she penetrated or to attempt to sell his or her services in repairing security breaches.
Anyone who unlawfully breaks into a computer system (whether an individual computer or a network).
The process by which someone uses personal information about someone else (such as the victim's name, address, and Social Security number) to assume the victim's identity for the purpose of defrauding another.
image backup (system backup)
A copy of an entire computer system, created for restoration purposes.
incremental backup (partial backup)
A type of backup that only backs up files that have changed since the last time files were backed up.
A process used by antivirus software; compares old and current qualities of files to detect viral activity.
keystroke logger (keylogger)
A type of spyware program that monitors keystrokes with the intent of stealing passwords, login IDs, or credit card information.
A virtual communications gateway or path that enables a computer to organize requests for information (such as web page downloads and e-mail routing) from other networks or computers.
logical port blocking
A condition in which a firewall is configured to ignore all incoming packets that request access to a certain port so that no unwanted requests will get through to the computer.
A computer virus that runs when a certain set of conditions is met, such as when a program is launched a specific number of times.
A virus that's distributed by hiding it inside a macro.
Software that's intended to render a system temporarily or permanently useless or to penetrate a computer system completely for purposes of information gathering. Examples include spyware, viruses, worms, and Trojan horses.
master boot record
A small program that runs whenever a computer boots up.
Literally meaning "multipart" virus; a type of computer virus that attempts to infect computers using more than one method.
network address translation (NAT)
A process that firewalls use to assign internal Internet protocol addresses on a network.
packet analyzer (sniffer)
A computer hardware device or software program designed to detect and record digital information being transmitted over a network.
A firewall specifically designed for home networks.
Planting malicious code on a computer that alters the browser's ability to find web addresses and that directs users to bogus websites.
The process of sending e-mail messages to lure Internet users into revealing personal information such as credit card or Social Security numbers or other sensitive information that could lead to identity theft.
A virus that changes its virus signature (the binary pattern that makes the virus identifiable) every time it infects a new file. This makes it more difficult for antivirus programs to detect the virus.
The act of creating an invented scenario (the pretext) to convince someone to divulge information.
Files that are used in the running of software programs and that do not store data.
The placement (by antivirus software) of a computer virus in a secure area on the hard drive so that it won't spread infection to other files.
Programs that allow hackers to gain access to your computer and take almost complete control of it without your knowledge. These programs are designed to subvert normal login procedures to a computer and to hide their operations from normal detection methods.
A type of malware that's downloaded onto your computer and that tries to convince you that your computer is infected with a virus or other type of malware.
A list of commands (mini-programs or macros) that can be executed on a computer without user interaction.
Any technique that uses social skills to generate human interaction for the purpose of enticing individuals to reveal sensitive information.
Unwanted or junk e-mail.
An option you can select in your e-mail account that places known or suspected spam messages into a folder other than your inbox.
A targeted phishing attack that sends e-mails to people known to be customers of a company. Such attacks have a much greater chance of successfully getting individuals to reveal sensitive data.
An unwanted piggyback program that downloads with the software you want to install from the Internet and then runs in the background of your system.
A virus that temporarily erases its code from the files where it resides and hides in the active memory of the computer.
A device that protects computers and other electronic devices from power surges.
A virus that's triggered by the passage of time or on a certain date.
A computer program that appears to be something useful or desirable (such as a game or a screen saver), but at the same time does something malicious in the background without the user's knowledge.
A computer program that attaches itself to another computer program (known as the host program) and attempts to spread itself to other computers when files are exchanged.
A portion of the virus code that's unique to a particular computer virus and that makes it identifiable by antivirus software.
white-hat hacker (ethical hacker)
A hacker who breaks into systems just for the challenge of it (and who doesn't wish to steal or wreak havoc on the systems). Such hackers tout themselves as experts who are performing a needed service for society by helping companies realize the vulnerabilities that exist in their systems.
whole-house surge protector
A surge protector that's installed on (or near) the breaker panel of a home and that protects all electronic devices in the home from power surges.
A program that attempts to travel between systems through network connections to spread infections. Worms can run independently of host file execution and are active in spreading themselves.
A computer that's controlled by a hacker who uses it to launch attacks on other computer systems.
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