38 terms

AP Euro - Unit 1B: Renaissance and New Monarchs

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Petrarch
(1304-1374) Father of the Renaissance. He believed the first two centuries of the Roman Empire to represent the peak in the development of human civilization.
Renaissance
French for "rebirth"; following the Middle Ages, a movement that centered on the revival of interest in the classical learning of Greece and Rome.
Italian Rennaissance
A period of great cultural change and achievement that began in Italy during the 14th century and lasted until the 16th century, marking the transition between Medieval and Early Modern Europe.
Lorenzo Valla (1407-1457)
A humanist who used historical criticism to discredit an eighth-century document giving the papacy jurisdiction over Western lands.
Patronage
Financial support of writers and artists by cities, groups, and individuals, often to produce specific works or works in specific styles.
Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519)
A well known Italian Renaissance artist, architect, musician, mathemetician, engineer, and scientist. Known for the Mona Lisa. Exemplary sample of a "Renaissance Man" that reflects humanist ideals.
Michelangelo
(1475-1564) An Italian sculptor, painter, poet, engineer, and architect. Famous works include the mural on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, and the sculpture of the biblical character David.
Donatello
(1386-1466) Sculptor. Probably exerted greatest influence of any Florentine artist before Michelangelo. His statues expressed an appreciation of the incredible variety of human nature.
Raphael
(1483-1520) Italian Renaissance painter; he painted frescos, his most famous being The School of Athens.
Filippo Brunelleschi
(1377 - 1446) A friend of Donatello, he was a skilled sculptor and goldsmith whose 1401 competition with Lorenzo Ghiberti for the commission of the bronze doors of the Florence Baptistery is a frequent question topic (Ghiberti got the chief commission). As an architect, he is mainly known for the extraordinary octagonally-based dome of the Santa Maria del Fiore (also known as the Florence Cathedral), which dominates the Florentine skyline. The task required an innovative supporting framework and occupied much of his career (as described in detail in Vasari's Lives of the Artists). Other projects include the Spedale degli Innocenti (a hospital), the Old Sacristy at San Lorenzo, and the Pazzi Chapel in the Cloisters of Santa Croce, all from 1421 to 1430.
Mannerism
An artistic movement that emerged in Italy in the 1520s and 1530s; it marked the end of the Renaissance by breaking down the principles of balance, harmony, and moderation.
El Greco
Spanish painter (born in Greece) remembered for his religious works characterized by elongated human forms and dramatic use of color (1541-1614)
Communes
Sworn associations of free men in Italian cities led by merchant guilds that sought political and economic independence from local nobles.
Popolo
Disenfranchised common people in Italian cities who resented their exclusion from power.
Signori
Government by one-man rule in Italian cities such as Milan; also refers to these rulers.
Courts
Magnificent households and palaces where signori and other rulers lived, conducted business, and supported the arts.
Baldassare Castiglione
An Italian author who wrote the book The Courtier in 1528. He described the ideal Renaissance man and woman.
Humanism
A program of study designed by Italians that emphasized the critical study of Latin and Greek literature with the goal of understanding human nature.
Niccolo Machiavelli
(1469-1527) Wrote The Prince which contained a secular method of ruling a country. "End justifies the means."
Civic Humanism
Humanism with the added belief that one must be an active and contributing member to one's society.
Secularism
An indifference to religion and a belief that religion should be excluded from civic affairs and public education.
Christian Humanists
Northern humanists who interpreted Italian ideas about and attitudes toward classical antiquity and humanism in terms of their own religious traditions.
Virtu
The quality of being able to shape the world according to one's own will.
Debate About Women (Renaissance)
Debate among writers and thinkers in the Renaissance about women's qualities and proper role in society.
New Christians
A term for Jews and Muslims in the Iberian Peninsula who accepted Christianity; in many cases they included Christians whose families had converted centuries earlier.
Northern Renaissance
An extension of the Italian Renaissance to the nations Germany, Flanders, France, and England; it took on a more religious nature than the Italian Renaissance.
Desiderius Erasmus (1466-1536)
1. Northern humanist who wrote "In Praise of Folly"
2. Wrote in Latin while most humanists wrote in the vernacular
3. Wanted to reform the Catholic Church, not destroy it
New Monarchs
Monarchs, who in the late 15 c. in Western Europe, began to centralize their own power by:
1. Providing guarantee of law and order.
2. Begin to refer to themselves as sovereign.
3. Competing with nobles for power by beginning to deconstruct feudal social structures.
4. Applying universal Roman Law across their countries (except England)
5. Established national identities
6. Developed early bureaucracies
7. Developed their own, 3rd party militaries
Examples of New Monarchs
England: Henry VII (Tudors)
Spain: Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon
France: Francis I (Valois)
Henry VII of England
Tudor who emerged victorious in the War of the Roses, strengthened the monarchy, and weakened the aristocrats (livery and maintenance).
Star Chamber
A secret English court used to deal with aristocrats who threatened royal power. A royal court, established by Henry VII of England, for offending Nobility. It was conducted without a jury.
Isabella I of Castile
married Ferdinand of Aragon. Is one of the New Monarchs. She helped unite Spain, expel the Moors, fund the discovery of the New World and set up the Spanish Inquisition
Gentry in England
A new class of landowners created by Henry VIII's Dissolution of the Monasteries.
Ferdinand of Aragon (1452-1516)
Spanish monarch who, along with his wife Isabella of Castile, who funded Christopher Columbus' voyage across the Atlantic in 1492, which led to his discovery of the West Indies.
Nobles of the Robe (France)
Commercial and professional groups that increased in political significance: In France, newly wealthy and influential businessmen and professionals could actually buy their way into the nobility, which both revealed their increasing importance and the stubbornness of feudal social structures.
Francis I of France
New monarch. He reached an agreement with Pope Leo X known as the Concordat of Bologne, which authorized the king to nominate bishops, abbots, and other high official of the Catholic Church in France. This agreement gave the French monarch administrative control over the church so long as Francis I recognized the right of the Papacy over universal council. This meant that French kings had no reason to support a revolt against Rome
Bureaucracy
A large, complex organization composed of appointed officials. Allowed New Monarchs to rely less on Nobility and Clergy for daily running of government systems.
New Armies
After 1500 the kingdoms of Spain, France, England become more independent of the Church and powerful monarchs begin to consolidate their kingdoms into centralized, bureaucratic states, the nobility becomes subordinate to the monarch and the kings and queens of Europe are able to raise permanent standing armies, Europe beginning to move beyond age of feudal political structure.
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