criminal justice

Law enforcement, the courts, and the correctional system
what are the three main components into which the contemporary criminal justice system is generally divided?
social control
because some individuals are so dangerous that must be outlawed outright or regulated, the contemporary criminal justice society uses the instrument known as:
preliminary hearing
in procedural order, which of the following comes first in the formal criminal justice process
Miranda warning
when the police want to interrogate or question a suspect, the office must first advise the suspect of his/her rights. This is called a(n):
at what stage of the formal criminal justice process does the defendant enter a plea of guilty or not guilty
crime control
which justice perspective holds that the proper role of the justice system is to prevent crime through the judicious use of criminal sanctions, and demands an efficient system that hands out tough sanctions to those who violate the law
equal justice
if you believe in the concept of "just desserts", which justice perspective do you favor?
equal justice
truth-in-sentencing laws are an aspect of which justice system perspective
which branch of government defines the law by determining what conduct is prohibited and establishes criminal penalties for those who violate the law
according to the ____ view of crime, behaviors that become crimes are essentially harmful to a majority of citizens and therefore there is general agreement regarding which behaviors need to be controlled
which of the following is a public order crime?
uniform crime report
which of the following is considered official crime data collected by the FBI?
in which season do the greatest numbers of reported crimes occur?
truth-in-sentencing laws
which laws require that convicted felons spend a significant portion of their sentence behind bars?
which view of crime promotes that there is a class struggle between the rich and the poor?
general deterrence
the idea that a potential criminal would fear punishment because they know of someone else who what punished is referred to as:
specific deterrence
which philosophy of punishment advocates severely punishing an offender in an attempt to convince him to permanently cease committing criminal acts?
social structure
which group of theories equates poverty with high crime rates
social control
____theory focuses on a persons's bonds to society as a factor in preventing crime
model their behavior after others and have that behavior positively reinforced
according to social learning theory, people become violent because they:
their level of self-control
the general theory of crime suggests that differences between individuals in the tendency to commit criminal acts stems from:
excessive levels of _____ have been linked to violence and aggression
defining crimes and their punishment
substantive criminal law is primarily concerned with:
public law
which type of law deals with the state of government agencies and controls their administrative relationships with individuals, corporations, or other branches of government
civil law includes all of the following except:
ex post facto laws
laws that are created and retroactively enforced are known as:
which of the following is not one of the categories that crimes are classified into?
mens rea
criminal negligence is a form of:
which of the following is not a type of excuse defense
whether the defendant voluntarily becomes intoxicated by using drugs or alcohol
the effect of intoxication upon criminal liability depends on:
the predisposition of the defendant
which of the following is the determining factor in a successful defense of entrapment?
statutory rape is an example of a crime that conclusively negates the use of what excuse
the ____ amendment limits the admissibility of confessions that have been obtained
which defense would be most applicable to the situation of a bank employee forced to divert funds into a special account by criminals who are holding her family hostage
the ____ amendment is the vehicle used to apply the protection of the Bill of Rights to the sttes
which constitutional amendment outlaws illegal searches and seizures by police
right to bear arms
which of the following is not considered an element of criminal procedure
the first technological breakthrough is policing came in the area of:
no single federal agency has unlimited jurisdiction
which federal law enforcement agency has unlimited jurisdiction
U.S. attorney general
who heads the U.S department of justice
U.S. Marshals
what federal agency is responsible for the transporting of federal prisoners
data mining
what term is used to describe the use of computer software to conduct analysis of behavioral patterns in an effort to link open cases to known perpetrators
computerized fingerprint system
AFIS is a(n):
private police are concerned almost solely with prevention
how do private police compare with public police?
most police agencies are organized in a ___ manner
order maintenance
while police patrol has many objectives, most police experts agree that the majority of police patrol efforts are devoted to:
police stopping motorists to issue citations and aggressively arresting suspicious persons is an example of what type of policing
sting operations
what term is used to describe organized groups of detectives who deceive criminals into openly committing illegal acts or conspiring to engage in criminal activity
productive interaction with the community being serve
community-oriented policing links police effectiveness to:
problem-oriented policing (POP)
the concept of hot spots of crime is most closely associated with which model of policing
who is responsible for setting policy and has general administrative control in smaller police departments
broken windows policing
what model sees the role of the police as maintainers of community order and safety
uniformed police officers
who are considered the backbone of a police department
vice squads
who is assigned to enforce morality-based laws, such as those addressing prostitution and gambling
enhanced crime-fighting ability
according to research, which of the following is NOT a benefit associated with higher education for police officers
the secrecy and insulation from others in society that is a consequence of the police subculture
the term "blue curtain" describes:
law enforcer
an officer who approaches a group of teenagers drinking beer, checks everyone's ID, and arrests everyone who is underage would typify which style of policing
crime fighter
an officer that approaches a group of teenagers standing in a parking low, checks them for gang symbols, and calls into the station to ascertain if any of them have active warrants, arresting those with a warrant, exemplifies which style of policing
traffic stop
in which of the following situations would a police officer exercise the greatest amount of discretion
implementation of an accountability system
which remedy of police corruption makes police supervisors responsible for the behavior of the officers they command?
they both think that white police officers are more professional
which belief do white and black police officers not share?
domestic violence cases
which type of case is often a source of frustration and futility for police officers making them reluctant to respong
what term is used to describe the way a person outwardly manifests his or her personality
during the middle years
when do officers usually feel the effects of the stress of their profession
probable cause
the fourth amendment specifically states that no warrants shall be issued but opon_____
a _____ occurs when a police officer takes a person into custody or deprives a person of freedom for having allegedly committed a criminal offense
a judge
search warrants are typically issues by
particularity requirement
the requirement that a search warrant state precisely where the search is to take place and what items are to be seized is referred to as:
the use of thermal imaging devices to search for marijuana in a suspect's house or garage
which of the following searches falls outside of the protection of the plain view doctrice
the right to face one's accuser
which of the following is NOT mandated by Miranda vs. Arizona (1966)
placing a suspect in a group for the purpose of being viewed and identified by a witness is called a
fruit of the poisonous tree
the exclusionary rule has also been extended to include derivate, or secondary evidence, also called;
good faith exception
the principle that evidence may be used in criminal trial even though the search warrant used to obtain it was technically faulty, as long as the police acted without malice when they sought the warrant
public safety doctrine
the principle that a suspect can be questioned in the field without a Miranda warning if the information the police seek is needed to protect public safety
plea bargaining
discussions between defense counsel and prosecution in which the accused agrees to plead guilty in exchange for certain considerations, such as reduced changes, is referred to as:
court of limited jurisdiction
a court which has jurisdiction over misdemeanors and conducts preliminary investigations of felony charges is referred to as:
courts of limited jurisdiction
misdemeanor courts and municipal courts are examples of:
a court of general jurisdiction
a state or federal court which has jurisdictions over felonies is referred to as:
U.S. district courts
courts which have jurisdiction over cases involving violations of federal laws, including civil rights abuses, interstate transportation of stolen property, and kidnapping are called:
9 members appointed by the president and approved by congress
the supreme court of the U.S. is comprised of:
writ of certiorari
an order of a superior court requesting that a record of an inferior court be brought forward for review or inspection
the rule of four
the convention that a certain number of justices must agree to hear a case before a writ is granted is called:
the senior officer in a court of law, who is authorized to hear and decide cases
missouri plan
a method of judicial selection that combines a judicial nominating commission, executive appointment, and nonpartisan confirmation elections
a process of dispute resolution in which a neutral third party renders a decision after a hearing at which both parties agree to be heard
an appointed elected member of the practicing bar who is responsible for bringing the state's case against the accused
grand jury
a group of citizens chosen to hear charges against a person accused of a crime and to determine if there is sufficient evidence to proceed to trial
the use of an alternative to trial, such as referral to a treatment or employment programs is called;
defense attorney
legal counsel in a criminal case who represents the accused person from arrest to appeal