Sociocultural Approach IB Psychology
Terms in this set (34)
social identity theory
theory in which the formation of a person's identity within a particular social group is explained by social categorization, positive distinctiveness, and social comparison
"Us"—people with whom we share a common identity.
"them" - those perceived as different or apart from our ingroup
Adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard.
informational social influence
influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality
normative social influence
influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval
the ability to generate interest in others or the ability to entice others to join a group
as groups gain in power, compliance increases
social cognitive theory
referring to the use of cognitive processes in relation to understanding the social world
the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
perception of a relationship where none exists, or perception of a stronger relationship than actually exists
oversimplified ideas about groups of people
Shared guidelines or rules for behavior that most group members follow
a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information
a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence
social desirability bias
A tendency to give socially approved answers to questions about oneself.
fundamental attribution error
the tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition
Discounting Principle of Attribution
People opt for the simplest explanation...
We discount other possible causes when we believe one is most likely
We are most likely to base others behavior on one factor, when in fact there could be many factors
one's sense of competence and effectiveness
the interacting influences of behavior, internal cognition, and environment
the process of learning that begins at birth and occurs in the home and family
process of learning appropriate behavior within smaller sections of the larger society
prescriptions for how people should interact and what messages should mean in a particular setting
Beliefs, customs, and traditions of a specific group of people.
Part of culture that can be seen: Language, clothing, food, customs, and art.
Below the surface are the more meaningful and powerful aspects of culture: a. Beliefs- what we see as truth b. Norms- unwritten rules for behavior c. values- what we hold most important
approach of studying a culture's behavior from the perspective of an insider
approach of studying a culture's behavior from the perspective of an outsider
the process by which culture is learned and transmitted across the generations
The adoption of cultural traits, such as language, by one group under the influence of another.
the process by which one generation passes culture to the next
The assumption that one must appreciate individuals' personal, subjective experiences to truly understand their behavior.
Actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope.