Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)
-Crohn's disease and Ulcerative colitis; both characterized by inflammation and swelling of the intestine, and may be caused by inappropriate immune response to a viral or bacterial insult.
Crohn's Disease -Inflammation occurs in several layers of tissue through to the muscle, causing dilated blood vessels and tissue damage' symptoms include diarrhea, abdominal pain, rectal bleeding, weight loss, and fever. Treatment involves a combination od medication, nutritional supplements, and corrective surgery.
Uclerative Colitis -Inflammation and ulceration are limited to the inner mucosa of the colon, interfering with water reabsorption an resulting in bloody diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss, anemia, nausea, fever, and severe urges to defecate. The exact cause of ulcerative colitis is unknown, but affected people often require anti-inflammatory medication and need to avoid trigger foods.
- Tolerance- the persons needs higher and higher intakes of alcohol to achieve intoxication
- Withdrawal - the person who stops drinking experiences anxiety, agitation, increased blood pressure, or seizures, or seeks alcohol to relieve these symptoms
- Impaired control - the person intends to have 1 or 2 drinks, but has 9 or 10 instead, or the person tries to control or quit, but fails
- Disinterest - the person neglects important social, family, job, or school activities because of drinking
- Time - the person spends a great deal of time obtaining and drinking alcohol or recovering from excessive drinking
- Impaired ability - the persons intoxication or withdrawal symptoms interfere with work, school, or home
- Problems - the person continues despite physical hazards or medical, legal, psychological, family employment, or school problems
Zinc(is a cofactor)responsible for making sure these things are synthesized at appropriate amount.- is needed for many metalloenzymes to function; it is associated with insulin, involved in protein synthesis, nucleic acid synthesis, immune reactions, vitamin A transport, wound healing, and fetal development. The body adapts to regulate zinc absorption, taking in more when needed, and excreting or storing any excess. Zinc is transported throughout the body by the protein albumin.
Copper is used for iron oxidation, so it can be bound by hemoglobin- is found in in enzymes that consume oxygen or oxygen radicals, copper acts as an antioxidant; it is found in ceruloplasmin, a protein needed for iron oxidation, and is needed for collagen production and regulation of certain neurotransmitters.
Microcytic Anemia: Iron-deficiency; RBCs do not contain enough hemoglobin to transport enough oxygen; Fatigue, pale skin, depressed immunity, impaired cognitive and nerve function, small, pale RBCs; Increase intake of foods rich in heme iron and/or supplementation under the direction of a physician
Pernicious Anemia*: Vitamin B12 deficiency due to lack of intrinsic factor; Pale skin, reduced energy, fatigue, poor coordination, dementia; Vitamin B12 injections
Macrocytic anemia: Folate deficiency that impairs DNA synthesis, resulting in RBCs with insufficient hemoglobin; Weakness, fatigue, difficulty concentrating, enlarged RBCs; Folate supplementation under the direction of a physician
- Women planning to become pregnant need to prepare for many physical, mental, and emotional changes to come, as this will optimize the chances of a safe, trouble-free pregnancy and delivery. Some things women and men can do:
- Maintain a healthy body weight- if she is not at a healthy body weight, she should take steps to reach a healthy body weight
- eat well- select high nutrient density, low kcalorie density foods, and eat a wide veriety of foods.
- be physically active- fitness provides a better quality of life in the long term, with less risk of cardiovascular disease
- receive regular medical care- this can catch potential health prpblems before they start
- manage chronic conditions- diabetes, HIV/AIDS, PKU, and STDs can have adverse affect on health and well-being
- avoid harmful environments, behaviours and or habbits- pollution (water, soil, air), smoking, excessive alcohol, drug abuse
During first trimester women should choose to eat food rich in nutrients involved in growth and development; by second trimester, she will need, on average 340 more kcal/day and an extra 450 kcal.day during third trimester- these should be obtained through nutrient dense whole grain products, dark green vegetable, citrus fruits, lower-fat dairy products, and lean animal proteins. Linolenic and linoleic acids and other PUFAs are essential for healthy fetal brain development. Protein intake must also increase to ensure an adequate supply for fetal growth. Vitamins and minerals involved in DNA and new cell synthesis are also essential, folate, vitamin B12, vitamin C, vitamin A, iron supplements may be recommended. Vitamin D, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and fluoride are also in demand as fetal bones and teeth develop. Water needs will increase to 3 L/day in order to minimize/prevent fluid retention, constipation and urinary tract infections. Nutrition during Pregnancy
- 1st trimester, pregnant woman will not need to increase kcalorie intake, but should choose foods rich in nutrients involved in growth and development
- 2nd; will need, on average, 340 more kcal/day and an extra 450 kcal/day during 3rd trimester
- Ingest sufficient carbohydrates and healthy fats to support the development of the fetal brain; linoleic and linolenic acids & other PUFAs are essential for healthy brain development
- Vitamins & minerals; folate, vit B12, vit C, vit A, Fe & Zn = essential in diet
- Iron supplements may be recommended during pregnancy as it is hard to obtain enough; folate supplements may also be taken
- Vit D, Ca, P, Mg & Fl also demand as fetal bones & teeth develop
- Maternal health, age nutrition status, socioeconomic status, and lifestyle
- Carry problems such as premature delivery, difficult birth, underdeveloped or stunted infant growth, birth defects, & high infant mortality
o Infants born to high-risk mothers tend to be of low birth weight (≤ 5.5 lbs./2.5kg)
- Strong correlation between birth weight and maternal socioeconomic status - women who are poor tend to be younger, under stress, and lack access to nutritious food as well as information about prenatal care
- If they smoke or abuse alcohol/drugs, prognosis of infant health at the time of delivery is poor