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Intro to Psychology Ch 1-3
Terms in this set (61)
What is Psychology?
The scientific study of behavior and mental processes. It focuses on critical thinking and is scientific, unlike fake sciences or psuedopsychologies (ex: psychics). It allows us to evaluate common beliefs.
What are the 4 goals of psychology?
The four goals of psychology are:
(1) Description - to describe particular behaviors by careful scientific observation,
(2) Explanation - to explain behaviors by conducting experiments to determine their causes,
(3) Prediction - to predict when a behavior being studied will occur in the future, and
(4) Change - to change inappropriate behavior or circumstances. psychologists investigate behavior with basic research or applied research.
Don't Eat Potato Chips
Who is the Father of Psychology?
Name some careers in Psychology
1.clinical and counseling psychology, 2.biopsychology/neuroscience,
Titchener brought Wundt's ideas to America and coined the term structuralism, which is now used to refer to the school of thought that focused on the investigation of thought processes and the structure of the mind.
Functionalism focused on the function of mental processes in adapting the individual to the environment. Darwin's theory of evolution had an impact on this school and William James was the leading force in the functionalist school.
What is the Psychoanalytic/ Psychodynamic Perspective?
Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic theory examined psychological problems that were presumed to be caused by conflicts in the unconscious which are primarily sexual or aggressive in nature. The controversy surrounding Freud's theories are briefly discussed.
What is the behavioral perspective?
The school of behaviorism that emphasized objective, observable behavior and the rigors of scientific research. All behavior is viewed as a response to a stimulus in the environment. Watson, Pavlov, and Skinner were all influential figures in behaviorism.
What is the humanistic Perspective?
Challenging both the psychoanalytic and behaviorist views, humanism stressed free will, self-actualization, and the positive and growth-seeking nature of human nature.
What is the Cognitive Perspective?
A modern perspective that continues research interests in how we gather, encode, and store information emphasizing the areas of thought, perception, and information processing.
What is the Neuroscience/ Biopsychology Perspective?
A modern perspective that explores the role of biological factors such as genetics and biological brain processes.
What is the Evolutionary Prospective?
The evolutionary perspective that focuses on the role of natural selection, adaptation, and evolution of behavior and mental processes
What is the sociocultural Prospective?
Social interactions and cultural determinants of behavior and mental processes are emphasized in the sociocultural perspective.
What is Biopsychosocial?
The biopsychosocial combines all seven disciplines.
What is basic research?
Basic research is conducted to study theoretical questions without trying to solve a specific problem. It studies behavior for its own sake - simply for knowledge.
What is Applied Research?
Applied research, however, utilizes the principles and discoveries of psychology for practical purposes attempting to find solutions to real-world problems.
Explain the steps of the scientific method.
(1) identify question and literature review,
(2) develop a testable hypothesis,
(3) select a research method and collect the data,
(4) analyze the data and accept or reject the hypothesis,
(5) publish, replicate, and seek scientific review, and (6) build a theory
Explain the three ethical standards set by the APA.
The American Psychological Association (APA) has published specific guidelines detailing these standards. Three important areas are discussed:
(1) human participants informed consent, voluntary participation, use of deception, debriefing,
confidentiality, and use of students as subjects,
(2) animal rights, and
(3) clients in therapy - confidentiality.
*know that non-human advocates offer significant scientific benefit.
What are the four research methods?
What is an experimental?
A carefully controlled scientific procedure that manipulates variables to determine cause and effect.
Independent variables are the factors the experimenter manipulates.
Dependent variables are measurable behaviors of the participants.
The control group does not receive the independent variable.
The experimental group recieves the independent variable.
What are some research problems?
Research problems may include experimenter bias, the placebo effect, ethnocentrism, sample bias, and participant bias.
What are some safeguards to limit such research problems?
Various safeguards including double-blind study, placebos, and randomization are discussed.
What is descriptive research?
It observes and records behavior without producing casual explanations.
What are the three types of research?
1. Naturalistic Observation- used to study behavior in its natural habitat.
2. Surveys- using tests, questionnaires, and interviews to sample a wide variety of behaviors and attitudes.
3. Case Studies- an in-depth study of a single research participant.
What is Correlational Research
Correlational studies allow scientists to determine the degree of relationship between variables. There are Positive, negative, and zero correlations.
What is biological research?
Tools for exploring the brain and nervous system including dissection, ablations/lesions, electrical recordings of brain activity (EEG), electrical stimulation of the brain (ESB), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET).
What is neuroscience?
interdisciplinary field that explores the role of biological factors such as genetics and biological brain processes.
Draw a neuron and describe what each part does.
Dendrites: bring info into neuron
Cell Body: recieves info from dendrites
Axon: carries neuron's message
Myelin Sheath: covers axon to insulate and to increase speed
Terminal Buttons of the Axon: forms junction with other cells.
What is a glial cell?
work as insulators; clean up cells
what is action potential?
A neutral impulse that carries info along the axon of the neutron
the space between neurons where communication occurs
Name the key nuerontransmitters
2. Acetylcholine (ACH)
4. Norepinephrine (NE)
5. Epinephrine (Adrenaline)
6. Gamma Aminobutyricacia (GABA)
What is the Endocrine System?
A collection of glands that manufacture and secrete hormones in the bloodstream (estrogen, insulin, testosterone) and helps regulate the body's response to crisis and sexual characteristics.
What is the Central Nervous system (CNS)?
Controls the brain and the spinal chord.
What is the Peripheral Nervous System? (PNS)
All nerves and neurons connecting the CNS to the rest of the body.
Name the parts of the CNS and explain them.
1. Brain- control center of the body. Controls reflexes (Babinski Reflex, Rooting Reflex, and Grasp Reflex)
2. Spinal Chord- transmits info in and out of the brain
What is the somatic nervous system and which system is it part of?
It is apart of the PNS and connects sensory receptors and controls skeletal muscles.
What is the autonomic nervous system and what are the two systems it breaks down into?
Also part of the PNS, it controls involuntary bodily functions and is split up into the sympathetic (arouses)(fight or flight) and the parasympathetic (calms) (think parachute-drifting calmy down)
List the functions of the Parasympathetic Nervous System
1. pupils contract
2. salivation increases
3. heart slows
4. lungs constrict
5. digestion & elimination increase
6. no sweat
List the functions of the sympathetic
1. pupils dialate
2. salivation decreases
3. heart accelerates
4. lungs dialate
5. digestion and elimination decrease
6. Sweat, and lots of it :D
What is the hindbrain in charge of?
automatic behaviors and survival functions.
medulla- life survival
cerebellum (little brain)- coordination
What is the midbrain in charge of?
Coordinates eye and body movements, sleep, and arousal.
What is reticular formation?
Series of neurons that run throughout the brain.
What is the Forebrain made up of and in charge of?
1. Thalamus- relays sensory messages (if injured, senses could be damaged)
2. Hypothalamus- beneath thalamus; master contol for emotion and basic drives (hunger, sex, aggression, thirst). It also regulates body temperature.
3. Limbic System- interconnected group of forebrain structures involved with emotions, drives, and memory (limbic means border). The amygdala is inside this system and controls aggression and fear.
What is the Cerebral Cortex?
Thin surface layer on left and right hemispheres; regulates most complex behaviors including sensation, motor control, and higher mental processing (called essence of life)
Name and explain the 4 Lobes of the Brain
1. Frontal Lobe- recieve/coordinate messages; responsible for motor control, speech, production, and higher functions.
2. Parietal Lobes- located at the top of the brain directly behind the frontal lobe; responsible for interpreting bodily sensations (pain, temperature, location of body parts)
3. Temporal Lobes- located on each side of the brain above the ears. Responsible for audition, language comprehensive, memory, and some emotional control (hearing & perception)
4. Occipital Lobes- visual, visual perception. Located at the back of the brain.
Explain the two hemispheres of the brain.
Right hemisphere: artistic, nonverbal abilities
Left hemisphere: Analytical, mathematics
What are behavioral genetics?
Studies effects of nature (your genes) vs. nurture (how you were raised)on behavior and mental processes.
What is evolutionary psychology?
It studies natural selection and adaptation; helps to explain behaviors.
What is stress?
The nonspeicific response of the body to any demand made on it. It arises from both physical and mental situations we percieve as challenging.
**Positive changes CAN cause stress
What is Cataclysmic Distress?
stressors that occur sudedenly and generally affect many people simultaneously (aka 9/11; hurricane katrina). It may stimulate bonding
What is a chronic stressor?
An ongoing, long, lasting, unpleasant event (ex: bad marriage). Having a bad job is highest chronic stressor
What is a life change?
A life event that requires some adjustment in behavior style (ex: college)
What are hassles?
Small, everyday problems accumulate to become a source of stress
What is occupational burnout?
A state of psychological and physical exhaustion resulting from chronic exposure to high levels of stress and little personal control.
What is frustration?
Unpleasant tension from a blocked goal (ex: trying to find your fake in your messy room)
What is conflict? and what are the types?
A forced choice between two or more things. The three types are:
1. Approach-Approach: forced choice btw 2 or more desirable alternatives (hot guy #1 or hot guy #2)
2. Avoidance-Avoidance: forced choice btw 2 or more options which are both undesirable (******* or jerk )
3. Approach-Avoidance: forced choice between 2 or more alternatives; both having both desirable and indesirable results. (leave pet, save yourself or stay with pet and possibly die)
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