History 1492-1865 Unit 1 Key Terms
Terms in this set (35)
The Pristine Myth
The view that the world Columbus encountered was scarce (1920's)
Hernando de Soto
Spanish Conquistador; explored in 1540's from Florida west to the Mississippi with six hundred men in search of gold; discovered the Mississippi, a vital North American river; moved through Tampa and enslaved people and burned towns.
French explorer who explored the St. Lawrence river and laid claim to the region for France
An indentured servant in Virginia in 1622. Author of letters detailing his miserable conditions in Virginia.
-A contractual system in which someone sells his or her body (services) for a specified period of time in an arrangement very close to slavery, except that it is voluntary entered into; usually male; received 50 acres of land at end of contract.
The Horror of Hunger
-Food shortages for the early American European settlers led to conflict
In early 16oo's, a group of Indians that helped the Jamestown settlers until the settlers demanded food from them; under Chief Powhatan; practiced advanced agriculture and were very mobile
Frethorne's New England counterpart; servant; in trouble with law in 1640; imprisoned for 3 months for having relations with a Pig
-group who wanted to return to original church of Christ
"The Cry of Sodom"
-execution sermon; by Samuel Danfourth; "Sentence of death is a just one"
Fences and Fields
-colonists cleared forests
-Fields of grain
-Fences for livestock (pigs)
-needed lumber and timber for homes, boats, and sheds
-Indians would kill and eat livestock
-Beaded belt which dictated political and religious power
King Phillip's War
War between the Native American tribes of New England and British colonists that took place from 1675-1676. The war was the result of tension caused by encroaching white settlers. The chief of the Wampanoags, King Philip lead the natives. The war ended Indian resistance in New England and left a hatred of whites.
The Conspiracy of 1741
Supposed plot by slaves and poor whites in the British colony of New York in 1741 to revolt and level New York City with a series of fires.
The Black Majority
In the 1700s enslaved black Africans outnumbered their white owners 4 to 1 in South Carolina.
A movement in the 18th century that advocated the use of reason and scoffed at superstition. Emphasis on INDIVIDUAL!!!
The First Great Awakening
Religious revival in the colonies in 1730s and 1740s; George Whitefield and Jonathan Edwards preached a message of atonement for sins by admitting them to God. The movement attempted to combat the growing secularism and rationalism of mid-eighteenth century America. Religious splits in the colonies became deeper.
-Carried Locke's idea further; happiness as standard
-Wealth of Nations- defense of free markets and free labor---> UNREGULATED MARKETS
-Political philosopher of democracy; 1st to link social systems-->politics-->economy; each person has right to life
-traveled to all colonies; center of the Great Awakening (Baker Mayfield of the GA); big idea was the sin of man and the mercy of god
John Peter Zenger
-NY weekly editor and publisher; said government was horrible; charged and acquitted
Seven Years War
(1756-1763 CE) Known also as the French and Indian war. It was the war between the French and their Indian allies and the English that proved the English to be the more dominant force of what was to be the United States both commercially and in terms of controlled regions.
The Stamp Act
-1765; law that taxed printed goods, including: playing cards, documents, newspapers, etc.
-Impromptu protests erupted
-formal opposition emerged in VA
-Stamp Act Congress formed in NY
-Mob violence proliferated, especially in MA
The Townshend Duties
-new taxes on glass, paint, paper and tea
-British used the revenue to pay colonial governments (so they remain loyal to the crown)
-Earlier pattern of resistance reappeared
-"No taxation w/o representation"
Second Continental Congress
May 1775 in Philadelphia
-Outwardly continued the policy of reconciliation
When news of fighting in MA reached them, Congress assumed mantle of colonies' central government: formed army, issued money, made committee to talk with foreign countries, British move army to NY
Battle of Saratoga
-Turning point of the American Revolution. It was very important because it convinced the French to give the U.S. military support. It lifted American spirits, ended the British threat in New England by taking control of the Hudson River, and, most importantly, showed the French that the Americans had the potential to beat their enemy, Great Britain, and led Britain to alter their strategy.
-Surrender of General Burgoyne
-American intellectual, inventor, and politician He helped to negotiate French support for the American Revolution (French Ambassador)
-Under AOC, state legislatures had more power than any other branch, but they began to abuse their power and acting corruptly. They were also trampling the judicial and exec branches.
-Governors had no power
-States were ignoring the common good and the general welfare
-Rebellion led by Daniel Shays of farmers in western Massachusetts in 1786-1787, protesting mortgage foreclosures. It highlighted the need for a strong national government just as the call for the Constitutional Convention went out.
-Everyone was pardoned
-State Governor was soundly defeated in next election
-State legislature soon subject too many of the rebels' demands
The Virginia Plan
-National Government should no longer be a confederation of independent republics
-3 branches: exec, judicial, legislative
-heart of government-- national legislature
-proportion representatives in both houses
-national veto over state legislature
-Argues: needed to limit size of national government, which could undermine state sovereignty and liberty
-feared: unchecked power of a centralized government
-might have had slight majority
The First Bank of the U.S.
-Part of Hamilton's Financial Program
-Have 20 year charter and disperse $10 million
-would fund US government
-create paper money by issuing notes to private citizens
-these citizens were to be merchants and other rich men
Empire of Liberty
-believed US republic could only survive through commercial agriculture and access to new land
-Feared European style economy (i.e. landless, wage workers)
-believed wages were depending
-revered the independence that came from farming one's own land
Lewis and Clark
-Sent on an expedition by Jefferson to gather information on the United States' new land and map a route to the Pacific. They kept very careful maps and records of this new land acquired from the Louisiana Purchase.
1. explore lands suitable for the expansion of agriculture
2. conclude whether such land was suitable for Indians
3. Seek a water route to the Pacific to establish commercial connections with China
A Native American woman who proved an indispensable guide to Lewis and Clark during their 1804-1806 expedition. She showed the men how to forage for food and helped them maintain good relations with tribes in the Northwest.