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Ch. 21 Abdominal System

Terms in this set (44)

--Infants and children- in newborn umbilical cord show prominently on the abdomen. Contains two arteries and one vein. Liver takes up proportionately more space in the abdomen at birth than in later life. Urinary bladder is located higher in the abdomen than in the adult. During early childhood the abdominal wall is less muscular and are easier to palpate.
--Pregnant woman- nausea and vomiting (morning sickness) is an early sign of pregnancy for most women, starting between the 1st and 2nd missed periods. Cause is a result of hormonal changes such as production of Hcg. Acid indigestion or heartburn (pyrosis) caused by esophageal reflux. GI motility decreases which prolongs gastric emptying time, which leads to constipation. Enlarging uterus displaces the intestines upward and posteriorly. Bowel sounds are diminished. Appendix may be displaced upward and to the right but any appendicitis related pain during pregnancy would still be felt in the RLQ. Skin changes on the abdomen such as striae and linea nigra.
--Aging adult- alters appearance of the abdominal wall. Some fat accumulates in the suprapubic area in females as a result of decreased estrogen levels. Salvation decreases, causing dry mouth and decreased sense of taste. Esophageal emptying is delayed and increases risk for aspiration. Gastric acid secretion decreases, may cause pernicious anemia, iron deficiency, and malabsorption of calcium, gallstones increase, being more common in females. Liver size decreases, drug metabolism by liver is impaired because blood flow through the liver and liver size has decreased. Frequent constipation.