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/a/ short or long schwa: as the a in above or ago

/aa/ long open back unrounded vowel: as the a in father

/ i / short close front unrounded vowel: as i in bit

/ iː / long close front unrounded vowel: as i in machine

/ u / short close back rounded vowel: as u in put

/ uː / long close back rounded vowel: as oo in school

/ri/ short syllabic vowel-like retroflex approximant: approximately as American English bird or meter

/ l / short syllabic vowel-like retroflex-lateral approximant: approx. as handle

/k/ unaspirated velar voiceless plosive; (k)


/ q /, pronounced alone it is / q /, similar to the English queen; (q)

/ kh / as the c in English cat. Aspirated voiceless velar plosive; (kh)


/ x / the voiceless velar fricative as the ending of the German doch. Many incorrectly pronounce it as / kh / (ख) instead; (kh)

/ga as in "girl"/; (g)

/gha/; (gh)

/cha/; (ć, c)

/chha/; (č)

/ja/ (as in 'jug'); (j)


/ z /, pronounced alone it is / z /, similar to the English zip; (z)

/jha/; (jh)

/ta/ (as in table or tommy); (t'))

/tha/ (with a hard t); (th')

/between 'ta' and 'tha'/ (t is a little harder than the); (t)

/d/; (d)

/dh/; (dh)

/n/; (n)

/pa/ (as in painter); (p)

/pha/ representing a heavily aspirated /p/ sound. It is a combination of sounds /p/ and /h/; (ph)


/ f /, pronounced alone it is / f /, similar to the English fish; (f)

/ba/; (b)

(bh) representing a heavily aspirated sound /b/. It is a combination of the sounds /b/ and /h/

usually representing the sound / j /, often transliterated as y. Pronounced alone it is / j / like the beginning of the English word yum (y)

/ r /, often transliterated as r. Pronounced alone it is / r / similar to the beginning of the English word run

/ l /, often transliterated as l. Pronounced alone it is / l / similar to the beginning of the English word love

often transliterated as v. Pronounced alone it is typically between the English v and w, though dialects range almost to each end of the spectrum between v and w

pronounced alone it is similar to the English ship; (ś)

pronounced alone it is similar to the English ship, but with retroflex articulation; (ś)

/ s /, pronounced alone it is / s /, similar to the English sun; (s)

/ h /, pronounced alone it is / h /, similar to the English hub; (h)

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