Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
Exam 1 Geo
Terms in this set (82)
The study of Earth's features (land, water, air), inhabitants (living things).
Refers to the nature and character of physical space. (Earth's surface)
Interaction and interdependence between geographic areas or sites.
Interaction is greatest where spatial distance is the least. (Near things more related than distant things).
The arrangement of features in space.
Frequency of occurrence within a given area.
The spread of something over a given area.
The geometric arrangement of objects in a given area. (ex. a linear distribution along a highway or a street grid pattern).
Area of the Earth defined by one or more distinctive characteristics.
a system that exchanges matter or energy with the environment (Glaciers, the atmosphere, the Amazon Forest).
Self-contained and isolated from influences outside the system. (Earth).
A change in a system caused by the system's output.
Feedback that tends to magnify a process or increase its output.
A system's operations are reversed by the system's output.
running the same sequence multiple times
Provides a method of specifying location using a network of intersecting lines. "Coordinate system."
North-south, 0-90 degrees
East and west of Prime Meridian. Centered on Greenwich, England. 0-180 degrees.
Relationship between the length measured on a map and the actual distance that length represents on Earth.
(The Mercator). depicts accurate shapes, but the sizes of landmasses are severely exaggerated.
(The Eckert). accurately depicts size, but distorts the shape of land.
"Wrap" the globe in a cylinder of paper. Paper tangent to Earth at equator. Conformal projection. Mercator projection is most famous.
Project globe onto a paper that is tangent to globe at some point. Equivalent projection. Gnomonic projection.
Project the map onto a cone tangent to or intersecting the globe. Good for mapping small areas (regions) on Earth. Impractical for global mapping.
Mix of conformal and equivalent. Central parallel and meridian cross at right angels. Oval shaped; distortion increases as you move away from center. Used for small scale mapping of the world.
Relies on satellites in orbit to provide precise location and elevation.
utilizes spacecraft, aircraft, and ground-based sensors to provide visual data that enhance our understanding.
Refers to software and databases used for storing and processing large amounts of spatial data as separate layers (themes) of geographic information.
the synchronization of clocks within a geographical area or region to a single time standard.
Solar System Formation
(Nebula hypothesis) Solar system formed from a large, slowly rotating and collapsing cloud of dust and gas.
June Solstice (June 21 or 22)
Northern hemisphere tilted toward the sun. Maximum daylength. Northern hemisphere summer and southern hemisphere winter - Declination of the sun at 23.5°N. (tropic of cancer)
December Solstice (December 21 or 22)
Northern hemisphere tilted away from the sun. Minimum day length. Northern hemisphere winter and southern hemisphere summer. Declination of the sun at 23.5°S. (tropic of Capricorn)
March (Vernal) Equinox(March20or21)
Equal length of day and night at all latitudes.Declinationof the sun at the equator.
September (Autumnal) Equinox (September 22 or 23)
Equal length of day and night at all latitudes.Declinationof the sun at the equator.
Relatively thin layer of air surrounding the earth that is held in place by gravity.
The gases of the atmosphere support life. The atmosphere regulates the earth's surface temperature - at about 15° C (59°F). The atmosphere makes the circulation of water on earth possible. Current atmosphere thought to be Earth's 4th
Layer of the upper atmosphere where the gases of the atmosphere are not evenly mixed, but occur in distinct layers sorted by gravity. (Less than 0.001% of the atmosphere is in this region.)
extending from the surface to about 80 km (50 mi). Most gases maintain uniform proportions: except ozone in the "ozone layer" and variable gases. (CO2:variable gas in the atmosphere with a significant impact on global temperature. The concentrations of CO2 have increased due to human activity (fossil fuel burning and deforestation).
Highest temperatures in the atmosphere. UV radiation contributes to a high concentration of charged molecules (ions). Source of the Northern Lights or Aurora Borealis. Upper limit: thermopause
Top = coldest part of our atmosphere.
Upper boundary: mesopause.
Location of the Ozone (O3) layer.
O3 absorbs solar radiation. Upper limit: stratopause.
Lowest 10-15 km (6-9 mi). Most weather occurs here (most of the water vapor, clouds, and air pollution). Holds approximately 90% of the total mass of the atmosphere. Upper limit: tropopause. Temperatures decrease at an average of 6.4 C° /km (3.5 F° per 1000 ft.).
Outer layer that absorbs cosmic rays, gamma rays, X-rays, and shorter ultraviolet (UV) radiation.
Contains a high concentration of O3 compared to other layers. O3 is highly reactive and absorbs UV radiation.
Ozone Losses over the Poles
1980s satellite measurements confirmed a large ozone "hole" over Antarctica from September to November (the Southern hemisphere spring).
- The Arctic ozone hole is smaller due to different stratospheric conditions from Antarctica
The Montreal Protocol
International treaty to protect the O3 layer by phasing out substances that deplete stratospheric O3.
- It was agreed upon in 1987.
- CFC production ceased in 2010, but substitutes and an active black market remain.
Major component of anthropogenic air pollution. Appeared after the advent of automobiles.
Responsible for hazy skies and reduced sunlight in many cities.
Industrial Smog and Sulfur Oxides
Air pollution from coal burning industries is known as smog. Outputs fossil fuel burning by industry and fertilizer application by agriculture can lead to acid deposition.
Temperature Inversions (Natural factor that affects pollutants).
A temperature inversion occurs when atmospheric temperatures, which normally decrease with altitude (normal lapse rate) reverse trend and begin to increase at some point.Inversions stop the vertical mixing of air by trapping cooler(denser)air beneath warmer (less dense) air.
Inversions are associated with particular weather conditions and topographic settings.
Local and Regional Landscapes
Mountains,hills,and valleys can act as barriers to air movement.
Air can be trapped when the barrier effects are combined with temperature inversions
Areas with active volcanoes can experience localized acid deposition.
incoming solar radiation
molecule-to-molecule transfer of heat energy as it diffuses through a substance
transfer of heat by mixing or circulation (warmer and less dense masses tend to rise, and cooler denser masses tend to sink
similar to convection, but horizontal movement dominates
the absorption and emission of Earth's longwave radiation in the lower troposphere leading to higher temperatures by greenhouse gases (GHG).
reflection and redirection of insolation by atmospheric gases, dust, ice, and water vapor. The shorter the wavelength the greater the scattering
The assimilation of radiation by molecules of matter, converting the radiation from one form of energy to another.
The temperature of the ____________ surface rises
the relative amount (ratio) of light that a surface reflects compared to the total sunlight that falls on it.
The bouncing back of a wave when it hits a surface through which it cannot pass.
The further away from the equator that a location resides, the less sunlight that this location receives. Seasons depend on latitude.
As you increase in elevation, there is less air above you thus the pressure decreases. As the pressure decreases, air molecules spread out further (i.e. air expands) and the temperature decreases. If the humidity is at 100 percent (because it's snowing), the temperature decreases more slowly with height.
Climate fluctuates. summers can be hot and winters very cold. Greater range between maximum and minimum temperatures at locations that are inland from the ocean or distant from large bodies of water.
summers can be cool, and the winters are not very cold. Moderating influences of the ocean and usually refers to locations along coastlines or on islands.
permanent or continuous, directed movement of ocean water that flows in one of the Earth's oceans. generated from the forces acting upon the water like the earth's rotation, the wind, the temperature and salinity differences and the gravitation of the moon.
Generally trend East to West and are parallel to the equator, and are interrupted by land masses.
a belt encircling the Earth, defined by the set of locations having the highest mean annual temperature at each longitude around the globe.
feel of temperature based on actual temperature and relative humidity
urban heat island effect
the phenomenon in which urban areas are warmer than the surrounding countryside due to pavement, dark surfaces, closed-in spaces, and high energy use
the pressure exerted by the weight of the atmosphere. Decreases with altitude.
Pressure Gradient Force
Drives air from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure
an isoline used on a map to connect points of equal pressure.
Closer isobar spacing = steeper pressure gradient and thus faster winds
• Wider isobar spacing = gentler pressure gradient and thus slower winds
Causes moving air and water to turn left in the southern hemisphere and turn right in the northern hemisphere due to Earth's hemisphere. Maximum at poles and zero at the equator.
affects wind direction and speed. decreases with altitude.
low pressure centers characterized by surface convergence and rising air
high pressure centers characterized by surface divergence and sinking
air. winds rotate in anti or counter-clockwise/cyclonic in the northern hemisphere and clockwise/anti-cyclonic in southern hemisphere
the flow of air from land to a body of water. At night, land cools faster.
Water heats more slowly than land during the day. Wind blows from sea to land.
Mountain top during the day heats faster than valley.
Upslope winds out of valley.
Mountain top cools faster at night. Winds blow from mountain to valley, downslope.
Warm downslope winds that flow down the leeward side of mountains.
• The zone of high pressure is on the windward side of the mountain, low pressure is on leeward side.
Seasonal reversal of winds , from land to sea, in the tropics and sub tropics
• Summer: inland (wet).
• Winter: towards the
Great Pacific Garbage Patch
Significant area of marine and manmade litter (especially plastics) trapped within the North Pacific Gyre under the Subtropical High (STH).
• The center of the gyre is calm and stable allowing the concentration of debris by the circulating ocean currents.
Periodic warming of waters in the eastern equatorial Pacific due to shifting SSTs (Sea-surface temperatures), air pressure, and winds across the region.
Has two phases (El Niño and La Niña) which are not correlated in strength or weakness .i.e. a strong El Niño does not guarantee a strong La Niña.
Recommended textbook explanations
The Living Earth Student Edition
Kent Pryor, Lissa Bainbridge-Smith, Richard Allan, Tracey Greenwood
Arthur T. DeGaetano, Jay M. Pasachoff, Mead A. Allison
Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe
Frances Scelsi Hess, Kunze, Letro, Sharp, Snow
Earth Science (California)
Sets with similar terms
Chapter 12 Test
Chapter 4 Geography
Geography 155 Exam 1 Review
oceanography ch 6
Other sets by this creator
Kapitel 3 Kontakte
Kapitel 2 Kontakte
Geo EXAM 3
Other Quizlet sets
2- History Mid term
Real Estate Trainers, Practice Exam #8
Anatomy H - Integumentary system Ch. 5.1