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Nutrition Exam 1
Terms in this set (95)
1. provide energy
2. regulate body processes
3. provide structure
What are the 3 broad functions of nutrients?
carbohydrate, lipids (fats), proteins
Which nutrients yield energy?
What is the general function of carbohydrates?
provide energy; involved in structure and regulation
What are the general functions of lipids?
support growth, maintenance, and repair of tissues
What are the general functions of proteins?
- do not dissolve in water
- can be stored in the body for long periods of time
- do not need to be consumed daily
- dissolve in water
- not stored in the body
- excreted mostly through urine
taste, finances, convenience, age, media, environment
Factors that influence food choices are
inadequate amounts of specific nutrients
too much of a specific nutrient
Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia
Areas where undernutrition is most prominent include
- limited access to food
- civil conflict
What are societal causes of undernutrition?
- pregnant/lactating women
What population groups are at greater risk of undernutrition?
someone with an advanced degree such as an MS, PhD, RD
What makes someone an expert in nutrition?
peer-revised journals such as
- Journal of Nutrition
- Journal of Clinical Nutrition
What is another source of reputable dietary advice?
What are the components of a healthy eating plan?
eating different types of food within each food group
incorporating foods from ALL food groups; balancing calories consumed with calories expended
avoiding overconsumption of any food or food group; portion sizes
nutrient dense foods
nutrient content of food relative to its calories
calories that have little or no nutrient content
maintain health and prevent deficiencies
What is the purpose of DRIs?
the value assigned to a nutrient when there is not enough evidence to determine a recommendation with certainty
Adequate Intake (AI)
the highest level of nutrient intake that poses little risk of adverse health effects
Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UI)
the value assigned to a nutrient that would meet the needs of 50% of the people in a given life stage/age and gender group
Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)
recommended intake required to meet the needs of 97-98% of the individuals in a given life stage/age and gender group
Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)
- Health Claims
- Structure/Function Claims
- Nutrient Content Claims
What are the 3 types of label claims allowed on food products?
statements about a product that link it or some of its ingredients to a reduced risk of disease; must be FDA approved
describe an association between a nutrient or food component and the structure or function of the body; must include a disclaimer on the label; does not have to be FDA approved
claims approved by the FDA that describe the level of a nutrient in a food item
Nutrient Content Claims
the first step in process of converting food to energy; complex series of chemical reactions combined with muscular movements that break down food into smaller compounds
the movement of smaller products of digestion across the lining of the intestinal tract, into our bodies, and ultimately into our cells
- Lower-esophageal sphincter
- Pyloric sphincter
- Ileocecal valve
What are the 3 primary sphincters involved in digestion?
separates stomach from the small intestine
separates ileum from cecum of large intestine
- Intrinsic Factor
What are the 5 gastric secretions?
protects the lining of the stomach
denatures proteins; activates pepsin and lingual lipase
hydrochloric acid (HCl)
essential for absorption of vitamin B12
proenzyme (inactive) that is converted to pepsin by stomach acid
control movement of the stomach and secretion of HCl
What are the components of the small intestine?
In what portion of the small intestine does most absorption occur?
Heliobacter Pylori or H. pylori
What is the most common cause of peptic ulcers?
makes bowel movement difficult; caused by low fiber, lack of exercise, dehydration, or disease
produces pain in the chest when stomach acid refluxed back into the esophagus; caused by infections from contaminated food/water, food intolerance, medications, or disease
GERD (aka heartburn/acid reflux)
inability to break down lactose due to lack of lactase (enzyme); caused by genetics, medication, or surgery
live microorganisms that can have a beneficial effect on health ( miso soup)
non-digestive carb sources used to support the metabolism of microbes in the large intestine (asparagus)
combinations of probiotics and probiotics (Active yogurt)
What are primary monosaccharides in foods?
What are the primary disaccharides in foods?
- can be digested
- yield calories
- ex: sucrose, fructose, honey, molasses, high fructose corn syrup
- may be natural or synthetic
- do NOT yield calories
- ex: Equal, Splenda, Sweetn'Low
- increased risk for coronary heart disease
- damage to eyes and blood vessels
- damage to nervous system
What are complication associated with diabetes?
when blood glucose elevates, this will enter the bloodstream in order to lower/neutralize it
when blood glucose drops, this will enter the bloodstream in order to lower/neutralize it
the pancreas is unable to produce insulin; thought to be an autoimmune disease
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
when cells are insulin resistant; typically overweight when diagnosed with this
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
this occurs in some women during pregnancy but will resolve after pregnancy
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
- illness or death
- high birth weight
- low blood glucose
- higher chance of diagnoses later in life
What are some risks of gestational diabetes in infants?
- binds to bile
- reduce risk of heart disease
- aid in lowering cholesterol
What are some benefits of soluble fibers?
- soften stool which accelerates the passage through the GI tract, which then decreases transit time
What are some benefits of insoluble fibers?
an intolerance to gluten that results in autoimmune disease; reduces the ability to absorb some nutrients
- some oats
What are some foods appropriate for those with celiac disease?
- bad breath
What are potential negative effects of low-carb diets?
the inability to digest lactose due to loss of function of lactase
- lactose-hydrolyzed milk
- lactase drops or pills
- soy milk, or other non dairy milk
What items can be included in the diet of a lactose intolerant individual?
What are the three categories of lipids?
a fatty acid fully occupied by hydrogen atoms (straight chain)
a fatty acid with one double bond
a fatty acid with 2 or more double bonds
- beef, pork, poultry
- dairy products
- tropical oils
What are common dietary sources of saturated fatty acids?
- nuts and seeds
What are common dietary sources of unsaturated fatty acids?
only in animal products
Where is cholesterol found?
What are the two essential fatty acids?
What acid does Omega-6 contain?
What acid does Omega-3 contain?
- they are involved in reproduction and blood flow
What is the role of Omega-6 in health maintenance?
- help prevent tissue inflammation
- help blood cells
- help prevent heart disease
What is the role of Omega-3 in health maintenance?
- cell membrane structure
- organ protection
- absorption of fat-soluble vitamins
- protect heart
- storage of energy
What functions do lipids have in the body and in food?
marketed as a weight loss drug; they inhibit a digestive enzyme that breaks down triglycerides
What is a fat blocker?
- anal leakage
- reduced fat-soluble vitamin A, D, E, and K absorption
- malabsorption of oral contraceptives
What are side effects of a fat blocker (weight loss drugs)?
- saturated fats
- trans fats
- total fat
What types of fat are associated with increased incidence of heart/cancer disease?
- fatty fish and fish oil high in Omega-3
What types of fat are associated with reduced incidence of heart/cancer disease?
the study of the interaction between nutrients, the body's function, and health
a substance that the body requires for energy, regulation of body processes and structure
a substance that must be acquired by the diet; the body does not produce
a substance the body can make in adequate amounts
scientific unit used to measure energy
nutrients needed in large amounts; carbs, fats, proteins
nutrients needed in small amounts; vitamins and minerals
biochemical activity that occurs in cells, releasing energy from nutrients or using energy to create other substances
Chemicals in plant-based foods that are not nutrients but that have various effects on the body
an integrated science that attempts to understand a genetic and molecular connection for how dietary compounds alter the expression and/or structure of an individual's genetic makeup, thus affecting their health and risk of disease
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