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Chemistry Chapter 3
Terms in this set (34)
Summarize the five essential points of Dalton's atomic theory
1. All matter is composed of extremely small particles called atoms.
2. Atoms of a given element are identical in size, mass and other properties. Atoms of different elements differ in size, mass and other properties.
3. Atoms cannot be subdivided, created or destroyed.
4. Atoms of different elements can combine in simple, whole-number ratios to form chemical compounds.
5. In chemical reactions, atoms are combined, separated or rearranged.
Explain the relationship between Dalton's atomic theory and the laws of conversation of mass and definite composition.
Dalton's atomic theory successfully explains the law of conversation of mass and definite composition and other observations.
The law of conversation of mass
Mass can neither be created nor destroyed in ordinary chemical or physical changes.
The law of definite composition
Every chemical compound has a definite composition by mass.
The law of multiple proportions
If two or more different compounds are composed of the same two elements, the masses of the second element combined with a certain mass of the first elements can be expressed as ratios of small whole numbers.
Summarize the observed properties of cathode rays that led to the discovery of the electron
An electrical current passes through the tube form the cathode, the electrode (plate) connected to the nagative terminal of the battery, to the anode, the electrode (plate) connected to the positive electrode. The electirc current was believed to be negatively charged.
Summarize the experiment conducted by Rutherford that led to the discovery of the nucleus
Studied the bombardment of thin metal foils with fast moving positively charged particles. One in eight thousand particles actually ricocheted back toward the source. Rutherford reasoned that these fast moving particles must be repelled by a powerful source. Which must only occupy a small amount of space, with a densely packed bundle of positive electric current. Which is the nucleus.
Relative electric charge: +1
Mass Number: 1
Relative Mass: 1.007 276 u
Actual Mass: 1.673 x 10 -24
Subatomic particles that have a positive charge equal in magnitude to the negative charge of an electron and are present in atomic nuclei.
Are electrically neutral, subatomic particles found in atomic nuclei.
Relative electric charge: 0
Mass Number: 1
Relative Mass: 1.008 66 u
Actual Mass: 1.675 x 10 -24 g
Relative electric charge: -1
Mass Number: 0
Relative Mass: 0.000 548 6 u
Actual Mass: 9.110 x 10-28g
Defining structure of an element, cannot be broken by any chemical means.
Smallest particles of an element that can exist alone or in combination with other atoms.
Atoms of the same element that have different masses.
Atomic structures of the isotope of hydrogen
Protium: one proton, one electron moving about it, zero neutrons, makes up about 99.985% of naturally occurring hydrogen.
Deuterium: Occurs in 0.015% of all hydrogen, one nucleus containing one proton and one neutron.
Tritium: radioactive, exists in very small amounts in nature, can be prepared artificially in a nuclear reaction, contains one proton, two neutrons and one electron.
Number of protons in nucleus of each atom of that element.
Atoms of different isotopes have different masses.Identifying an isotope requires knowing the name or atomic number of the element and the mass of the isotope.
An element consists of atoms all of which have the same number of protons in their nuclei.
is the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an isotope.
Two methods are used to designate isotopes in writing. 1) Mass number is added with a hyphen to the name of the element. 2) Atomic number is added to the symbol for the element as a subscript on the left.
Who first conceived the basic principles of atom theory?
What are all relative atomic masses of atoms compared to?
Dalton's atomic theory helped explain what?
Law of conversation of mass
Law of definite composition
Atoms of the same element can differ in?
Mass number (the atoms of the same element can differ in number of neutrons which affects the mass number)
Example of law of multiple proportions?
CO: 12 parts of mass of carbon combine with 16 parts of mass of oxygen.
Who proposed the Law of Multiple Proportions?
Name the three isotopes of hydrogen.
Protium, Deuterium, Tritium
What did Milkman's oil drop experiment show?
The mass of the electron is in fact approximately one two-thousands the mass of a hydrogen atom.
A small percent of positively charged particles hitting the metal's surface were deflected back toward the source.
What is a mole?
The amount of a substance that contains the same number of particles as the number of atoms in exactly 12 g of carbon-12.
What's molar mass?
Mass in grams of one mole of an element.
What makes up the mass number?
Total number of neutrons and protons in the nucleus of an isotope.
Main points of Dalton's atomic theory?
All matter is composed of extremely small particles called atoms.
Atoms of a given element are identical in size, mass and other properties; atoms of different elements differ in size, mass and other properties.
Atoms cannot be subdivided, created or destroyed.
Atoms of different elements can combine in simple, whole-number ratios to from chemical compounds.
In chemical reactions, atoms are combined, separated or rearranged.
The mass in grams of one mole of any pure substance.
The molar mass of any element is numerically equal to it's atomic mass and has the units g/mol.
1 mole equals
6.02 x 10^23 formula units, atoms, ions, number of particles
Atomic mass (amu) is equal to
the molar mass
The percent by mass of each element in a compound.
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