AP Psych Ch. 15

banishes anxiety- arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness
leads an individual faced with anxiety to retreat to a more infantile psychosexual stage
Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory
rests on the repression of painful experiences into the unconscious mind
Freud on personality
It arises as a result of conflicts between social restraints against our biological impulses
Oral Stage
0-18 months
Pleasure centers on the mouth
18-36 months
Pleasure focuses on bowel and bladder elimination; coping with demands for control
3-6 yrs
Pleasure zone is the genitals; coping with incestuous sexual feelings
Dormant sexual feelings
Maturation of sexual interest
The role of repressed childhood conflicts in personality disorders is most clearly emphasized by the ________ perspective.
Jaydon doesn't realize that his alcohol abuse and neglect of his family is leading to the destruction of both family and career. A psychoanalyst would suggest that Jaydon shows signs of a:
weak ego
Freud suggested that adults with a passive and submissive personality marked by a childlike dependency demonstrate signs of:
an oral fixation
Bryce often acts so daring and overly confident that few people realize he is actually riddled with unconscious insecurity and self-doubt. Bryce best illustrates the use of a defense mechanism known as:
reaction formation
In 1921, Hermann Rorschach introduced what has become the most widely used ________ test.
Abraham Maslow suggested that individuals who are open, spontaneous, and not paralyzed by others' opinions illustrate:
Humanistic psychology has been most closely associated with an emphasis on the importance of:
a positive self-concept
Which personality test classifies people in terms of the personality dimensions highlighted by Carl Jung?
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
Which technique would psychologists use to assess whether a cluster of characteristics that includes ambition, determination, persistence, and self-reliance reflects a single personality trait?
Factor analysis
During a phone call to the Psychic Network, Mark was told that "you often worry about things much more than you admit, even to your best friends." Mark's amazement at the psychic's apparent understanding of his personality best illustrates:
The Barnum effect
One of the Big Five personality factors is:
Sarah's optimism is both a contributor to and a product of her successful career accomplishments. This best illustrates:
reciprocal determinism
Marcy believes that the outcome of athletic contests depends so much on luck that it hardly pays to put any effort into her own athletic training. Her belief most clearly illustrates
an external locus of control
Although she is intelligent and a good athlete, Abigail believes that her low grades in school and losing the quarter-mile race are reflections of her own intellectual and athletic incompetence. Her conclusions best illustrate:
a pessimistic attributional style
When Vanessa noticed that she was wearing mismatched socks, she overestimated the extent to which others would also notice. Her reaction best illustrates:
the spotlight effect
Sigmund Freud emphasized the importance of
unconscious processes
Although Alex has frequently been caught stealing money and other valuables from friends as well as strangers, he does not feel guilty or remorseful about robbing these people. Alex most clearly demonstrates a(n):
weak superego
According to Freud, fixation refers to a difficulty in the process of:
psychosexual development
Bonnie is afraid to express anger at her overbearing and irritating supervisor at work, so she is critical of her children instead. A psychoanalyst would suggest that Bonnie's reaction to her children illustrates:
Children who have witnessed a parent's murder report memories that most clearly challenge Freud's concept of:
According to terror-management theory, people enhance their self-esteem in order to defend themselves from fear of their own:
Who emphasized the importance of unconditional positive regard in healthy personality development?
The humanistic perspective has been criticized for promoting an excessive degree of:
A "lie scale" that assesses the extent to which a person is faking to make a good impression is included in the:
The stability of personality during adulthood best illustrates the value of:
the trait perspective
Albert Bandura's social-cognitive perspective highlights the importance of:
reciprocal determinism
Researchers attempt to understand personality using biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis. The psychological level of analysis is especially likely to emphasize the importance of:
attributional style
After experiencing prolonged and seemingly inescapable physical abuse from her husband, Kayla became increasingly depressed and hopelessly resigned to her suffering. Her reaction best illustrates:
learned helplessness
Students perceive themselves as less likely than the average classmate to develop drinking problems or drop out of school. This best illustrates:
unrealistic optimism
Card players who attribute their wins to their own skills and their losses to bad luck best illustrate:
self-serving bias
your characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, acting
a technique for exposing and interpreting unconscious tensions
Free association
saying what comes to mind to explor the unconscious
origin of mostly undesirable thoughts, feelings
source of unconscious psychic energy, operates on the pleasure principle
mediates bet. Id and superego, operates on the reality principle
represents interanl ideals; standards for judging
Oedipus complex
boy desires mother; jealous feelings toward father (phallic stage)
Incorporating your parents' values into your superego
Focusing energies at an earlier stage where you have unresolved conflict
Gender Identity
one's sense of being a male or female
Defense Mechanisms
used by ego for reducing anxiety by distorting reality
Reaction Formation
you express feelings opposite to your anxiety producing unconscious feelings
disguising your impulses by projecting onto others
offering self-justifying explanations so the real, threatening ones aren't exposed
shifting aggressive or sexual impulses toward a less threatening object or person
the ego uncounsciously protects itself by expressing impulses through socially acceptable activites
Projective Test
gives you ambiguous stimuli toward which to project your inner dynamics
a projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguoous scenes
Rorschach inkblots
10 blots identify your inner feelings by analyzing your interpretations