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Terms in this set (83)
Wilhelm Wudnt's 1879 experiment measured the time it took for people to:
react to a stimulus
Titchner had people engage in:
_____ is the reporting of sensations and other elements of experience in reaction to stimuli.
_____ tried to use introspective reports to build a view of the mind's structure.
human thoughts, feelings, and behaviors
The Principles of Psychology was written by:
_____ became a memory researcher and the first female president of the APA, and studied with William James, but was denied a Harvard PhD because of her gender.
Mary Whiton Calkins
_____ became a second female APA president, and wrote The Animal Mind; she also studied with Edward Titchener, but was barred from his experimental psych organization because she was female.
Margaret Floy Washburn
The most recent definition of psychology is:
"the science of behavior and mental processes"
John B. Watson studied behavior by teaching:
a baby to fear rabbits.
How did Watson teach the baby to fear rabbits? What type of conditioning was used?
By pairing a bunny with a loud noise; classical
Skinner used ____ conditioning to teach pigeons to do amazing things to get rewards.
Who was the founder of psychoanalysis?
Freud studied and helped people with a variety of _____.
What type of psychology focused on the role of unconscious drives, wishes, and needs, and emphasized the importance of childhood experiences?
Freudian Psychology (Psychoanalytic Psychology)
____ and ____ were humanists.
Maslow and Rogers
_____ studied people who were thriving, rather than those who had psychological problems.
Maslow and Rogers
Maslow and Rogers developed theories and treatments to help people:
feel accepted and to reach their full potential
What are the 7 current perspectives in psychology?
Psychodynamic, behavioral, neuroscience, evolutionary, behavior genetics, cognitive, and social-cultural
Descartes, Plato, and Darwin had the perspective that ____ developed us as people.
Aristotle and Locke believe that _____ is the way humans develop.
Science is needed in psychology because of the need to overcome human thinking tendencies such as:
hindsight bias, seeing meaning in coincidences, overconfidence error, the scientific attitude, and critical thinking.
The three components of scientific attitude are:
curiosity, skepticism, and humbleness
A set of principles, built on observations and other verifiable facts, that explains some phenomenon and predicts its future behavior is called a:
The three characteristics of scientific method are:
theory, hypothesis, and operational differences.
A testable prediction consistent with our theory is called a:
A ___ ___ is examining one individual in depth
The fact that case studies can be a source of ideas about human nature in general is considered a:
benefit (or pro)
The fact that case studies can cause overgeneralization is considered a:
danger (or con)
A _____ is a method of gathering information about many people's thoughts or behaviors through self-report rather than observation.
______ is a technique for making sure that every individual in a population has an equal chance of being in your sample.
______ of participants to control or experimental groups is how you control all variables except the one you're manipulating.
A ______ study is when neither the participants nor research staff knows which participants are in the experimental or control groups.
double-blind (or double blind)
A ________ is a group that is the same in every way except the one variable we are changing.
____ is the study of bumps on the skull and their relationship to mental abilities and character traits.
Neurons are considered:
atoms of the mind
The cell body of a neuron is the:
cell's life support center
The ____ of a neuron receive messages from other cells
The ___ of a neuron pass messages away from the cell body to other neurons, muscles, or glands.
The ____ of a neuron covers the axon of some neurons and helps speed neural impulses.
____ is a neural impulse that travels down an axon like a wave
When the _____ is reached, the action potential starts moving.
The ___ is reached when excitatory signals outweigh the inhibitory signals by a certain amount
The _____ is a junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron.
____ are chemicals used to send a signal across the synaptic gap.
After the neurotransmitters stimulate the receptors on the receiving neuron, the chemicals are taken back up into the sending neuron to be used again. This process is called:
Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that affects:
mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal
Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that influences:
movement, learning, attention, and emotion
Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter that enables:
muscle action, learning and memory
When acetylcholine is deteriorating, _______ disease is progressing.
An undersupply of dopamine is linked to tremors and decreased mobility in ____.
An ___ molecule fills the receptor site and activates it, acting like the neurotransmitter.
An ___ molecule fills the lock so that the neurotransmitter cannot get in and activate the receptor site.
The three types of neurons are:
sensory, motor, and interneurons
The central nervous system includes the:
brain and spinal cord
The peripheral nervous system includes the ___ and ___ nervous systems.
autonomic and somatic
The ___ nervous system controls self-regulated action of internal organs and glands.
The ___ nervous system controls voluntary movements of skeletal muscles.
The autonomic nervous system includes the:
sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems
The sympathetic nervous system is the ___ side, and the parasympathetic nervous system is the ___ side.
The ___ refers to a set of glands that produce chemical messengers called hormones.
Hormones are molecules that the endocrine system sends through the _____ to go to the brain and other tissues.
The ___ secretes many different hormones.
Lesions, EEG, PET, MRI, and fMRI are all examples of ways to:
examine the brain
___ is a recording of the electrical waves sweeping across the brain's surface.
EEG's are useful in:
studying seizures and sleep
The ___ allows us to see what part of the brain is active by tracing where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task.
___ makes images from signals produced by brain tissue after magnets align the spin of atoms.
____ reveals brain activity and function rather than structures.
The brainstem and cerebellum:
coordinates the body
The ____ manages emotions, and connects thought to body
The ____ integrates information
The base of the brainstem is the:
The ____ controls the most basic functions such as heartbeat and breathing
If someone has damage to the medulla, they will:
not be able to breathe on their own
The reticular formation enables ___ and it filters incoming ___ information
All sensory messages, except smell, are routed through the ___ on the way to the cortex.
The cerebellum helps to:
coordinate voluntary movement
The ___ enables nonverbal learning and memory
The ______ coordinates emotions such as fear and aggresssion, basic drives such as hunger and sex, and the formation of episodic memories.
The limbic system includes the:
amygdala, hypothalamus, hippocampus and pleasure centers
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