Chapter 9 HSU Astronomy
Terms in this set (34)
The suns energy is generated by
The layer of the sun that is normally visible to us is the
Where is the chromosphere on the sun
It is the layer above the visible surface of the sun
Sunspots are the area of the sun that are
Cooler than their surroundings
the two forces producing hydrostatic equilibrium in the sun are
nuclear forces and gravity
the is the suns outer atmosphere. It is visible during the total eclipse of the sun as a pearly white crown surrounding the sun
are regions of higher temperature and density surrounding sunspots
The temperature of the suns photosphere is
The is then given by the sum of the number of individual sunspots and ten times the number of groups
What is the photosphere of the sun
The visible "surface" of the sun
The thickness of the photosphere, or the visible "surface" of the sun is,
about 400 km
The surface of the sun is divided into light-colored areas with dark boundaries in a cellular pattern. What are these cells called?
What is the names of the layer of the suns atmosphere that appears as a pinkish ring just outside the visible disk of the sun during a solar eclipse
What are the names of the three layers f the suns atmosphere, in the order from highest to lowest?
Corona, chromosphere, photosphere
Where is the coolest region in the sun?
in the photosphere
What is the solar wind?
The suns outer atmosphere streaming out into space
cooler, darker regions on the suns atmosphere
What is the name of a sudden eruptive surge on the surface of the sun?
What is the average length of time from one maximum in the number of sunspots to the next maximum
The average sunspot group on the solar surface will last for about
two rotations of the sun
Sunspots are caused by
differential rotation and its effect on weak magnetic fields just under the solar surface
Energy is transported from the center of the sun to the surface by
mostly radiation; Convection only in outer layers
Thermonuclear fusion reactions in the core of the sun convert four hydrogen atoms into one helium atom. The helium atom has
LEss mass than the four hydrogen atoms, because the energy produced is lost from the atom, the energy is equivalent to mass by e=mc squared
What process provides the power for the sun?
the fusion of hydrogen into helium
The brighter cells surrounded by dark, narrow boundaries making up the cellular pattern that completely covers the visible surface of the sun are called
Granulation on the surface on the sun is caused by
convective currents carrying heat from beneath the surface
The gas motions within granules on the solar surface are
Almost nonexistent; the dark patterns represent a network of absorbing gases overlying the atmosphere
What is the reason why the edge of the suns visible disk is darker than the center
we see into shallower layers into the sun near the edge and, because the gas is less dense there, it emits light
What is a spicule on the sun?
a jet of rising gas in the chromosphere
the rotation of the sun is
fastest at the equator, slower at mid-lattitudes and slowest near the poles
the equatorial region of the sun are seen to rotate with an approximate period of
about 25 days
What is the character of the sunspot cycle?
sunspots increase and decrease in number over 11 years, appearing at random location between latitude 10 and 30 degrees from the equator in both hemispheres
The Maunder minimum is the name given to
a period of 70 years in the late 1600s during which essentially no sunspots were seen
What is a neutrino?
an uncharged electron