Biology Final Review
Terms in this set (21)
In an atom with a neutral overall charge, the number of protons is equal to the _________.
number of electrons
Each electron has a negative charge and each proton has a positive charge. Thus, in a neutral atom, the number of electrons is equal to the number of protons.
Which of these is a type of chemical bond that involves the sharing of electrons?
Covalent bonds involve sharing a pair of electrons.
What is the main sugar used by cells for energy?
Cells use glucose for energy in the process of cell respiration.
Plant cell walls consist mainly of _____.
The polysaccharide called cellulose is a major component of the tough walls that enclose plant cells.
The building blocks of proteins are called _____.
Amino acids polymerize to form proteins.
A major difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells is that __________.
eukaryotic cells have organelles; prokaryotic cells do not
Organelles are membrane-bound structures that perform specific functions. Prokaryotic cells do not have organelles.
Which of these distinguishes a plant cell from an animal cell?
presence of a cell wall
Plant cells have cell walls; animal cells do not.
Which of the following correctly matches the organelle with its function?
vacuole ... storage
Plant cells have a central vacuole, whereas most animal cells have several smaller vacuoles located throughout the cytoplasm. In both cases, vacuoles can serve as storage units within a cell.
Mitochondria, the sites of cellular respiration, are found in __________.
plant cells and animal cells
Mitochondria are found in nearly all eukaryotic cells.
An enzyme is a protein that __________.
changes the rate of a metabolic reaction without being consumed by the reaction
The use of energy to move molecules across a membrane defines _____.
Cellular energy is used to drive a transport protein that pumps a solute across a gradient.
The use of no energy to move molecules across a membrane defines _____.
The chemical ingredients needed for photosynthesis are _____ and _____.
carbon dioxide ... water
Carbon dioxide enters the plant's leaves and water is absorbed from the soil by the plant's roots.
The main function of cellular respiration is __________.
making ATP to power cell activities
The end products of photosynthesis are _____ and _____.
glucose ... molecular oxygen
Glucose and O2 are used by plants and can also support consumer organisms that eat plants.
With the exception of gametes, a human cell contains _____ chromosomes.
Human somatic cells contain 22 pairs of nonsex chromosomes (autosomes) and 2 sex chromosomes.
Meiosis and cytokinesis result in the formation of __________.
four haploid cells
In mitosis a cell that has doubled its genetic material divides into two diploid daughter cells. In meiosis a cell that has doubled its genetic material undergoes two rounds of division, resulting in four haploid cells.
Which of the following lists (in order) the four stages of food processing?
ingestion, digestion, absorption, elimination
This is the order of food processing events for organisms that require all four steps. On the other hand, fungi, for example, begin the process with digestion and end with absorption.
Which one of the following correctly represents the order in which food coming into the body passes through the structures of the digestive system?
mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine
How do oxygen and carbon dioxide cross capillary walls?
Oxygen diffuses down its concentration gradient from the capillary into the interstitial fluid; carbon dioxide diffuses down its concentration gradient from the interstitial fluid into the capillary.
Which of the following best describes an artery?
Arteries carry blood away from the heart.
Both arteries and veins are defined by the direction that blood is transported relative to the heart.