The traditional code of conduct associated with medieval knighthood. Arose from an idealized German custom and developed first among soldiers in Charlemagne's army. Involved gallantry, individual training, service to others, honor, courtly love, and courtesy. Was a moral code that instructed all knights to protect the weak, guard fellow knights, tell the truth, respect women, obey those in authority, keep faith in God, and have the skills to fight in war. In medieval Europe, a large, self-sufficient landholding consisting of the lord's residence, outbuildings, peasant village, and surrounding land. Had wide legal jurisdiction over its inhabitants and could give out punishments. They were productive units that require land, buildings, animals, equipment, and a workforce. The administration was self-contained and direction was provided by a court, presided over by the lord's steward. An essential component of feudalism.