20 terms

Chapter 11 - Theodicy: Encountering Evil

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Theodicy
From the Greek theos ("god") and dike ("justice"); introduced by the philosopher Wilhelm Leibniz to designate the problem of justifying the goodness and power of God in view of the evil in the world.
Mystical Participation
This type of theodicy often takes place in rites of passage and also through the loss of self in absorption in a larger social or spiritual reality. In such cases, what defines the self is not its unique individuality but, rather, its participation in and identification with a corporate group, clan, tribe, nation, or race.
Objective immortality
In this form of theodicy, the "soul" was considered to be more than the individual, conscious ego; it was everything that we associate with a name---renown, property, progeny, and so forth. The "soul" may thus live on even when the individual ego dies.
This worldly eschatology
According to this view, Palestine was envisioned as a new Eden, a Paradise regained, which would be established through a "righteous remnant." Once holy Zion was secure, a world reign of justice and peace would ensue; the desert would bloom; the poor would be rewarded; and flocks, corn, and fruit would multiply.
Millenarian theodicy
According to this form of theodicy compensation for the suffering of the present time is postponed into the future, but a future realized on this earth and not in some other-worldly heaven. There will be a revolutionary transformation in which the just will be rewarded and the unjust will be put down.
Taborites
This group of people stressed a sharing of all goods in common and taught that a new age of the Holy Spirit was about to dawn: Despite the injustice and suffering of the present time, the Elect peasants wold soon be vindicated and consoled, and all feudal institutions and their lords and priests would be destroyed.
Iranian Shi'ism
The coming of the Imam at the end of time to initiate a thousand years of peace and justice, and to redress the wrongs of individuals and the community, is believed to be occurring at the present time.
Apocalypse
Associated with a class of Jewish and Christian literature that purports to reveal, in highly symbolic language, what is to happen in the future.
Shi'i other-wordly theodicy
The martyrdom in this sect of Islam is joyful not only in the assurance that his or her suffering hastens the day when the Imam will come but also in the promise of immediate heavenly bliss.
Dualist theodicy
The victory of order over chaos and the defeat of evil and suffering will take place, as in Zoroastrianism, in a distant cosmic victory of Light over Darkness or, as in Gnosticism, in a return to a world of Light wholly beyond this material world.
Samsara
This is wheel of rebirth, or reincarnation, the doctrine that each soul passes through a sequence of bodies. The soul's human embodiment brings with it self-consciousness, freedom, and responsibility.
Karma
The law of cause and effect. Each person is the effect of the actions of a previous embodiment and, in turn, is the architect of his or her own habits and character, and hence of his or her destiny in a future rebirth.
Dharma (Hinduism)
In Hinduism, laws or duties appropriate to one's present condition or caste without attachment to consequences.
Process theodicy
This type of theodicy argues that nothing, not even God, can wholly determine the being of others. Evil is attributed to other than God's own for which God cannot be held responsible. God cannot eliminate evil; God can only minimize it while maximizing the possibilities for good.
Negative theodicy
This theodicy asks us to suppose that the world is hedonistic paradise, that is, free of all possibility of pain and suffering. What kind of world would it be?
Theodicy of protest
According to this theodicy, God is the Lord of Creation. God cannot be exonerated because of human freedom. God, too, is guilty; God, too, must bear a large share of responsibility for evil. God must be put in the dock and interrogated, and called to account.
Kaddish
Jewish public prayer that is characterized by the praise and glorification of God; and by the hope in the establishment of God's kingdom on earth; also used a mourner's prayer, it is recited at the graveside of close relatives and in the synagogue.
Dukkha
Human pain and suffering in Buddhism.
Karma-samsara theodicy (Buddhism)
In the Wheel of Life, there is that inexorable chain of causation, the dependent origination of all things. And since nothing exists independently, all beings are the effect of previous causes. Every action produces its effect and the pleasant and painful consequences cannot be escaped until one finds enlightenment and release.
Theodicy of submission
This theodicy appeals to faith in the face of God's mysterious ways that pass human understanding. Humans are to submit to God's sovereignty and omnipotence; human suffering is dissolved by God because of God's sovereign majesty and mystery in the eschaton (end of time).