Sports Medicine Basic Sports Injuries
Terms in this set (68)
Specific time and place
Force = macrotrauma
Gradual onset over time
Forces = repetitive microtrauma
First Degree (Musculotendinous Injury Grade Sign Implications)
- Minimal loss of structural integrity
- No abnormal motion
- Little or no swelling
- Localized tenderness
- Minimal bruising
- Minimal function loss
- Early return to training
- Some protection may be required
Second Degree (Musculotendinous Injury Grade Sign Implications)
- Significant structural weakening
- Some abnormal motion
- Solid end feel to stress
- Bruising and swelling
- Often associated with hemarthrosis and effusion
- Tendency to recurrence
- Need to protect from risk of further injury
- May need modified immobilization
- May stretch out further with time
Third Degree (Musculotendinous Injury Grade Sign Implications)
- Loss of structural integrity
- Marked abnormal motion
- Significant bruising
- Needs prolonged protection
- Surgery may be required
- Often permanent functional instability
Inflammation and tenderness of a tendon with a gradual onset caused by repeated microtrauma and degenerative change.
Inflammation of a bursa caused by overuse of muscle or tendon at a bony prominence, or by constant external compression or trauma.
Tissue pull or stretch force; opposite of compression; tension
Tissue pull or stretch beyond yield point
e.g. sprain, strain, fracture
Crushing tissue force; squeezing or crushing effect; type of force that crushes and compresses the tissue
ex. axial loading is a type of compressive force that produces a squeezing or crushing effect
e.g. fracture, contusion/bruise
Force across parallel organization of tissue; parallel to the surface; sliding
e.g. blister, abrasion, fracture
Force along a perpendicular bone axis
Twisting force along a vertical/horizontal axis; type of force that twists or rotates
e.g. spiral fracture
Acting along the axis of a structure; a type of compression force that produces a squeezing or crushing effect
Scraping or rubbing off of the skin
A jagged cut to the skin
Tearing away of the skin; when skin/tissue is forcibly ripped or torn away
A clean cut to the skin.
ex. with a knife
When something is driven straight into and through the skin
Closed/Simple - the skin is not broken
Open/Compound - the skin is broken
A fracture that occurs at an angle
MOI: Sudden twist on one end w/ fixation at other
A fracture in which the bone has been "shattered," and has broken into several pieces
The bone is twisted/torsional; torsion-caused break
Perpendicular to bone shaft; straight across the bone
Relatively clean break
A piece of bone is broken off when pulled by a tendon or ligament
Ligament or tendon is pulled on forcefully; instead of rupturing, it pulls a small chunk of its bony attachment way from the rest of the bone.
Salter Harris Classification
For Growth Plate (Epiphyseal) Injuries
- Develop from overuse
- Usually do not appear on x-ray for several weeks
- Pain worsens over time; may be worst immediately after activity
- Dull, difficult to locate pain
- Used to be called fatigue fractures or march fractures
Bone is forced from its normal position and stays out.
Bone is forced from its normal position, but slips out and returns.
Ligament (attaches bone to bone) injury resulting from a force causing a joint to move beyond its normal limits of motion.
- Grade I / 1st Degree (Mild) - some stretching
- Grade II / 2nd Degree (Moderate) - some tearing
- Grade III / 3rd Degree (Severe) - complete rupture
"Pulled muscle or tendon"
Graded I-III (like ligament sprains)
- Grade I / 1st Degree (Mild) - mild stretching of fibers; painful, but full ROM
- Grade II / 2nd Degree (Moderate) - some tearing of fibers, palpable defect, pain, ecchymosis (discoloration), and moderate to severe pain
- Grade III / 3rd Degree (Severe) - complete rupture, intense to no pain, unable to move affected body part normally
Mechanism of Injury (MOI)
How an injury occurs.
Application of force: push or pull on the body.
- Surface areas
- Duration of force
- Tissue type
- Severity of injury
- Often caused by Compression or Tension Mechanisms
- Usually occur to Brachial Plexus or Lumbar Plexus
- Can result in Neuropraxia or Paresthesia
A sensation of tingling, tickling, prickling, pricking, or burning of a person's skin with no apparent long-term physical effect.
Caused by repetitive stress to tissue
- Achilles, Bicipital, and Patellar Tendinitis
- Medial (Pitcher's/Golfer's Elbow) and Lateral (Tennis Elbow) Epicondylitis
- Shin-Splints (Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome)
- Stress Fractures (Fibula, 2nd and 5th metatarsals)
- Osgood-Schlatter's Disease
- Runner's/Jumper's Knee (ITBFS and Pes Anserinus Tendinitis)
- Patellar Chondromalacia
The widening or dilation of blood vessels. It occurs as a result of relaxation of the interior walls of blood vessels.
Swelling of body tissues due to an excessive accumulation of fluid in connective tissue or a serous cavity
A localized collection of blood outside the blood vessels, usually in liquid form within the tissue.
Find out the symptoms, use open-ended questions, depending on the injury, you may have to ask specific questions.
Attitude, mental condition, and perceived physical state
- Stated by the athlete
- Primary Complaint
- Mechanism of Injury
- Characteristics of the Symptoms
- Past History
Sample History Questions
When did the problem start?
What makes it better? What makes it worse?
Is it better or worse in the morning or at night?
Is it better or worse with breathing, urination, eating, excitement, stress, rest, movements, etc?
Have you had symptoms like this before?
Have you had x-rays, MRIs, or CT scans?
Getting better, worse, or same?
Have you received any treatments?
Do you have any family history of chronic disease or health concerns?
Find out the signs:
- Appearance: what does it look like?, skin appearance, signs of trauma
- Bilateral Symmetry
- Expressions denoting pain
- General Motor Function
- Posture and Gait
- Deformity, swelling, discoloration, scars, and general skin condition
Injury Evaluation Process
Symptom: Athletes perception of his or her injury
Sign: Objective, measurable physical finding regarding the individuals condition
HOPS: History, Observation, Palpation, Special Tests
SOAP: Subjective, Objective, Assessment Plan
Athletes perception of his or her injury.
Objective, measurable physical finding regarding the individuals condition.
- Begin away from the pain and move towards the injury
- Pain and point tenderness
- Malalignment of joint/bone
- Tissue temperature and circulatory status
Uniplanar tests designed to assess ROM, muscular strength, or ligament stability.
- Active Range of Motion (AROM)
- Passive ROM (PROM)
- Resistive ROM (RROM)
- Manual Muscle Tests (MMT)
- Ligament Stability: instability and endpoints, end feel, ligament laxity.
Peripheral Nerve Testing
Sport-Specific Functional Testing
Proprioception and Motor Coordination
Type of force where the tissue is pulled, strained, sprained, etc.
AKA simple fracture; the skin is not broken
AKA compound fracture, bone breaks through the skin
When the bone is depressed
ex. a skull depression fracture
An incomplete fracture; the bone bends but does not completely break; this happens most often to children
A direct, crushing blow that causes the bone to impact on itself
When the bone is split along its length
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
- diagnostic test that can look at soft tissue
The ability to recoil and resume its resting length after being stretched
The ability to be stretched or increase in length
- Inflammation of a tendon and its sheath
- Inflammation of the fluid-filled sheath (called the synovium) that surrounds a tendon
a sensory receptor for painful stimuli; pain receptors
A continuous grating sensation caused when irregular cartilage or bone fragments rub together and which may be felt or heard as a joint is put through passive range of motion; also, a crackling sensation that can be felt on a patient's chest, indicating that air is trapped within the tissues.
a large, irregular area of purplish discoloration due to bleeding under the skin; a bruise
an injury to underlying tissues without breaking the skin and is characterized by discoloration and pain
A fracture to the orbit, usually cause by a blow to the eye
Vertebrae collapse due to trauma, tumor, or osteoporosis.