Landforms and surface processes
Useful flashcards to learn about landform and involved processes
Terms in this set (62)
Processes by which rock, sand, and soil are broken down and carried away (i.e. weathering, glaciation)
The breaking down of rocks and other materials on the Earth's surface.
Any process that breaks rock down into smaller pieces without changing the chemistry of the rock; typically wind and water.
The process in which rock is broken down by changes in its chemical makeup
A mixture of mineral particles and organic material that covers the land, and in which terrestrial plants grow.
A large, flowing body of water that usually empties into a sea or ocean.
Relief with trenches and gullies, created as a result from rain or mellting ice, run down slopes without a fixed channel
land along a river
The highest part of a river, usually in the mountains, including the source.
The middle of a river where the river has a wider channel and is less steep.
The final, slower part of the river, which can form wide loops before entering the sea.
part of a stream where the water flows very swiftly over rocks
streams of water that fall from a high place
Remnants of former floodplains, stands above the modern floodplain
A winding, looping curve in the course of a river on soft, flat flood plain
Narrow deep valleys with steep rocky sides.
A heavy stream; a gush
A low plain adjacent to a river that is formed chiefly of river sediment and is subject to flooding
A wide, sloping deposit of sediment formed where a stream leaves a mountain range
A landform made of sediment that is deposited where a river flows into an ocean or lake
A calcite deposit that hangs from the roof of a cave
a conical mineral deposit formed on the floor of a cave by the dripping of mineral-rich water
a large surface crater caused by the collapse of an underground channel or cavern; often triggered by groundwater withdrawal
A type of landscape in rainy regions where there is limestone near the surface, characterized by caverns, sinkholes, and valleys
A body of rock or sediment that stores groundwater and allows the flow of groundwater.
water that fills the cracks and spaces in underground soil and rock layers
"Moving ridges of water on the surface of the ocean caused by wind
the regular rise and fall of the ocean's surface influenced by the moon's gravity pulling on earth
The movement of water and sediment down a beach caused by waves coming in to shore at an angle
Wave action undercuts land
Erosion of rock at the base of a cliff
Erosional and depositional features. This empty space that comprises the cavern forms as a result of erosion.
deposits of sand and other fragments of rock left along the shoreline boundary
low, narrow, sandy islands that form offshore from a coastline.
A ridge of sand that connects an island to the mainland or to another island
An accumulation of sand and gravel deposited downcurrent from a headland. Sand spits often curl at their tips.
A body of water cut off from a larger body by a reef of sand or coral
temperate zones, estuaries dominated by salt tolerant grasses above the low tide line and by sea grasses under the water.
tidal current ridges; longitudinal
A partly enclosed coastal body of water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea.
The place where a river empties into another body of water
A large mass of moving ice and snow on land
Erosion caused by wind that blows away small sediments.
A type of erosion caused by wearing or scraping away by sand grains or other particles striking other sand grains and rocks, breaking off small fragments. The particles can be transported by wind, water, ice or gravity.
Sand accumulates when there is an obstruction across the wind path. The more sand gets collected, the steeper the slope will be.
Deposits of silt laid down by aeolian processes over extensive areas of the mid-latitudes during glacial and post glacial times also called humus.
long narrow sheet of ice projecting out from coastline
accumulated earth and stones deposited by a glacier
A long, narrow glacier that forms when snow and ice build up in a mountain valley
Materials or substances such as minerals, forests, water, and fertile land that occur in nature and can be used for economic gain
a resource that cannot be reused or replaced easily (ex. gems, iron, copper, fossil fuels)
Any natural resource (as wood or solar energy) that can be replenished naturally with the passage of time
Addition of more waste than a resource can accommodate.
Material which is eliminated or discarded as no longer useful or required.
Destruction of forests
- disappearance of specie
Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
The combined action of weathering and erosion
All external conditions and factors, living and nonliving (chemicals and energy), that affect an organism or other specified system during its lifetime.
a type of estuary as a result of a sink fluvial valley, e.g. coast of Galicia and Tasmania
A stream valley deepened by glacial erosion that floods as sea level rises.